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\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629

Free download \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 free photo or picture to be edited with GIMP online image editor

This is the free photo or picture example named \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 for OffiDocs app Gimp, which can be considered as an online image editor or an online photo studio.

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Download or edit the free picture \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 for GIMP online editor. It is an image that is valid for other graphic or photo editors in OffiDocs such as Inkscape online and OpenOffice Draw online or LibreOffice online by OffiDocs.

\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f
\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629



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\u062a\u0623\u0644\u064a\u0641 : \u0625\u064a\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u0648\u0648





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\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a





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\u0648\u0644\u0627 \u0623\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0629.





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\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0643\u064a\u0631
Post-thinking





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\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0625\u062b\u0646\u064a\u0629.





\u0648\u0642\u062f \u201c\u0642\u062f\u0645 \u0633\u0627\u0646\u062a
\u0644\u0648\u064a\u0633 2002
St Louis \u201d \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0645\u0628\u0643\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0633\u062a\u0634\u0631\u0641 \u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0622\u0641\u0627\u0642 \u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639 \u0645\u0627
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David
Goldberg\u201d (2002 \u2013 2008
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Gilroy\u201d (2000- 2004
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St
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African
nationalism
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Africanism
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Edward Blyden\u201d\u060c
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W.E.B. Du Bois\u201d\u060c \u0648\u201d\u0641\u0631\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0632 \u0641\u0627\u0646\u0648\u0646
Frantz Fanon\u201d \u062f\u0648\u0631\u064b\u0627 \u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u064a\u064b\u0627 \u0641\u064a \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0642\u0627\u0634\u0627\u062a.





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Homi Bhabha\u201d \u0648\u201d\u062c\u0648\u062f\u064a\u062b \u0628\u0648\u062a\u0644\u0631 Judith Butler\u201d
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Nayak
2006
). \u0648\u064a\u0643\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u064a \u0641\u064a \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0631\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631
\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0644\u063a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062f\u0627\u062e\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a \u0648\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062a\u062c\u0627\u0648\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0643\u0648\u0633\u0627\u0626\u0644 \u0644\u0641\u0647\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u063a\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0648\u062c\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a
\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a. \u0648\u0647\u064a \u0644\u063a\u0629 \u062a\u062d\u062c\u0628 \u062c\u0630\u0648\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0646 \u062f\u0648\u0646 \u0642\u0635\u062f. \u0648\u062a\u0636\u0639\u0641 \u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u062c\u0630\u0631\u064a \u0645\u0646 \u0631\u0633\u0648\u062e
\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u062a\u062c\u0630\u0631\u0647\u0627 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0627\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0627\u0635\u0631 (
Lentin
2004: 315, Huggan and Law 2009
). \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0623\u062f\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0644\u0637 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u201c\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629\u201d \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0639\u0627\u0631\u0636\u0629 \u0634\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u062c\u0627\u0646\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u062b\u064a\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0646\u062d\u0648 \u0645\u0627 \u062a\u0631\u0649 \u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639
\u201c\u0622\u0644\u0627\u0646\u0627 \u0644\u064a\u0646\u062a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u0622\u062e\u0631\u0648\u0646 \u063a\u064a\u0631\u0647\u0627. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0644\u0641\u062a\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0642\u0627\u062f\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0647 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0636\u0631\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0625\u0639\u0637\u0627\u0621 \u0623\u0647\u0645\u064a\u0629
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\u0641\u0625\u0646\u0647 \u0642\u062f \u062a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644 \u0645\u0639 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0638\u0631\u0648\u0641 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0643\u0645\u0644 \u0648\u062c\u0647 \u0641\u064a \u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0641\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0628\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0636\u064a\u0646
\u0644\u062d\u0631\u0643\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631 \u0628\u062f\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u201c\u0641\u0631\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0632 \u0641\u0627\u0646\u0648\u0646\u201d \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0639\u0627\u0646\u0649 \u0634\u062e\u0635\u064a\u064b\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0642\u0639 \u0643\u0648\u0646\u0647 \u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u0629\u060c
\u0648\u062d\u062a\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0627\u0626\u0639\u0629 \u0644\u0640 \u201c\u0625\u064a\u0645\u064a \u0633\u064a\u0632\u0627\u0631
Aimé Cesaire\u201d
\u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0643\u064a\u0646\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0623\u0646\u0638\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0643\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0645\u0628\u0631\u064a\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 (
Lentin
2004: 316\u201417; see Chapter 1
). \u0648\u0641\u064a \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u062a\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0628\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0642\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a\u062d\u0627\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u064a
\u0639\u0627\u0645 2003 \u0645 \u0628\u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u062a\u0635\u0648\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0648\u062e\u0628\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0637\u0641\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a\u0646 \u064a\u0646\u0634\u0626\u0648\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u0639\u0627\u0626\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0637\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0639\u0631\u0627\u0642 \u0648\u0645\u062a\u062f\u0627\u062e\u0644\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0625\u062b\u0646\u064a\u0627\u062a. \u0648\u0623\u0643\u062f\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0636\u0631\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0643\u064a\u0631 \u0641\u064a\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629 (\u0643\u0628\u062f\u064a\u0644 \u0644\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629)\u060c
\u0648\u0623\u0643\u062f\u062a \u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0636\u0631\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0625\u062f\u0631\u0627\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0632\u0639\u0645 \u0628\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0637\u0629.





\u0648\u064a\u0646\u0637\u0648\u064a \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0643\u064a\u0631 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0643\u0627\u0631\u062b\u0629 \u062a\u0644\u064a \u0623\u0648 \u062a\u062d\u0644 \u0645\u062d\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0627\u062a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0628\u0642\u0629. \u0648\u0644\u0646\u0627 \u0623\u0646 \u0646\u0633\u0623\u0644\u060c
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\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0643\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0630\u0627\u062a\u0647\u0627. \u0648\u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0623\u0643\u062f \u201c\u0645\u064a\u0644\u0632
Miles\u201d:
\u2019\u2019\u0644\u0642\u062f \u0628\u062f\u0623\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u064a\u0637\u0631\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0636\u0645\u062d\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u062b\u0644\u0627\u062b\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0646\u2018\u2018(
Miles
1993: 214
). \u0648\u0628\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0639\u0644\u060c \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0646\u062c\u0627\u062d \u0645\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0636\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0642\u062f \u0623\u062f\u0649
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\u2026.). \u0648\u062a\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0644 \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062a\u064a\u062c\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0637\u0627\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062c\u062c \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0647 \u0642\u064a\u0645\u0629 \u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0637\u0631\u064a\u0642\u0629
\u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631\u0627\u062a\u0647\u0627. \u0648\u064a\u0643\u0641\u064a \u0647\u0646\u0627 \u0623\u0646 \u0646\u0642\u0648\u0644 \u0623\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0643\u0627\u0631\u0627\u062a \u062a\u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0643\u0625\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062a\u064a\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u062f\u0641\u0627\u0639
\u0639\u0628\u0631 \u062a\u0645\u062b\u064a\u0644 \u0625\u064a\u062c\u0627\u0628\u064a \u0644\u0644\u0630\u0627\u062a. \u0648\u0628\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0644\u064a \u062a\u0633\u0647\u0644 \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062a\u064a\u062c\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u062c\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0636\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0636\u062f \u0645\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0636\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0625\u0646\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u062a\u0646\u0627 \u0648\u0635\u0644\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0628\u0642\u062f\u0631\u062a\u0646\u0627 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u062f\u0648\u0627\u0646 \u0647\u0648 \u0631\u062f \u0641\u0639\u0644 \u0645\u0646\u062a\u0634\u0631 \u0633\u0648\u0627\u0621 \u062a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0628\u064a\u0631
\u0639\u0646\u0647 \u0628\u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644 \u0639\u0646\u0641 \u0623\u0648 \u0628\u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644 \u0645\u062d\u0627\u064a\u062f\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u062f\u0641\u0627\u0639 \u0627\u0646\u0641\u0639\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0642\u0648\u064a \u0636\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0641 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0631\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0632\u0646\u0629
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0624\u0644\u0645\u0629 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0630\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 (
Pajaczkowska and Young 1992).





\u0648\u064a\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0631 \u0645\u0635\u0637\u0644\u062d
\u201c\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u201d \u0645\u0635\u0637\u0644\u062d \u0641\u0636\u0641\u0627\u0636 \u0648\u064a\u062b\u0627\u0631 \u062d\u0648\u0644\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u062f\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u062d\u062f \u0630\u0627\u062a\u0647. \u0648\u064a\u0646\u0637\u0648\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0637\u0644\u062d
\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0628\u0639\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0641 \u0628\u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0627\u0641\u0639 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0625\u0646\u0647\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631 \u064a\u062a\u0636\u0645\u0646 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0636\u0631\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0622\u062b\u0627\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0635\u0645\u064a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0645\u0628\u0631\u064a\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0646\u0641\u0633\u0647\u0627\u060c \u0648\u064a\u062a\u0645\u0646\u0649 \u0644\u0648 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u064a\u0633\u062a\u0637\u064a\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0646\u0635\u0644 \u0645\u0646\u0647\u0627(
Gikandi
1996
). \u0648\u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646 \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0643\u0648\u0646 \u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631 \u0647\u064a
\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0631\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0639\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0624\u0633\u0633 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062a\u0647\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u0644\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646 \u0623\u0646
\u062a\u0643\u0648\u0646 \u0647\u064a \u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062d\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0645 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0627\u0637\u0644\u201d \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0624\u0633\u0633 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0648\u062c\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u064a \u0644\u0644\u064a\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0648\u0631\u063a\u0628\u062a\u0647\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062b\u064a\u062b\u0629
\u0641\u064a \u062e\u0644\u0642 \u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0645\u062a\u0628\u0627\u064a\u0646\u0629 \u0644\u0643\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0644\u064a\u0633\u062a \u0645\u062a\u0635\u0627\u062f\u0645\u0629. \u0648\u0645\u0639\u0638\u0645 \u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631 \u0647\u064a \u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629
\u201c\u0645\u0631\u0627\u0642\u0628\u0629
Surveillance\u201d \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0642 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0627\u0635\u0631\u0629. \u0648\u0647\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0624\u0633\u0633\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0627 \u064a\u0633\u0645\u064a\u0647 \u201c\u0625\u062a\u064a\u0646 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0628\u0627\u0631
Etienne Balibar\u201d \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062a\u064a\u062c\u064a
\u0644\u0645\u0634\u0631\u0648\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u064a\u0639\u0627\u0628 \u062f\u0627\u062e\u0644 \u0645\u0634\u0631\u0648\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0628\u0639\u0627\u062f. \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u064a\u0635\u0628\u062d \u0641\u064a\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062c\u0627\u0646\u0628 \u201c\u063a\u0631\u0628\u0627\u0621\u201d\u060c
\u0648\u062a\u062e\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0645\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0631\u0627\u0626\u0647\u0627 \u201c\u062a\u0641\u0636\u064a\u0644\u201d\u060c \u0648\u064a\u0646\u0632\u0644\u0642 \u0641\u064a\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a \u062f\u0627\u062e\u0644 \u201c\u0648\u0635\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629\u201d\u060c
\u0648\u0643\u0644 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u064a\u062d\u0642\u0642 \u0645\u0646\u0627\u0641\u0639 \u0644\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0628\u064a\u064a\u0646\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a\u0646 \u0647\u0645 \u0643\u064a\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641 \u062a\u0645\u0627\u0645\u064b\u0627 \u0639\u0646 \u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627 \u0643\u0643\u0644 (
Balibar
2003: 122
). \u0648\u064a\u0632\u0639\u0645 \u201c\u0628\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0628\u0627\u0631\u201d \u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0644\u0644\u062c\u062f\u0644 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0641\u064a \u0642\u0644\u0628
\u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0643\u0645\u0646 \u0628\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0628\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062a\u062a\u0645\u062d\u0648\u0631 \u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0633\u0645\u064a\u0629
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0635\u0648\u0631 \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0633\u0645\u064a \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u0627\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0627 \u0648\u0622\u0633\u064a\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0645\u0646 \u0623\u062c\u0632\u0627\u0621 \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649 \u0641\u064a \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627
\u062a\u0639\u0627\u0646\u064a \u0627\u0642\u062a\u0635\u0627\u062f\u064a\u064b\u0627 (
Balibar 2003; see also Dainotto 2007).
\u0648\u0647\u0624\u0644\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a\u0646 \u064a\u0639\u064a\u0634\u0648\u0646 \u062d\u064a\u0627\u062a\u0647\u0645 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062c\u0627\u0646\u0628 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u0648\u062f\u060c \u0648\u064a\u0646\u062a\u062c\u0648\u0646 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0627\u0646\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0622\u062e\u0631.
\u0647\u0645 \u0644\u064a\u0633\u0648\u0627 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u062f\u0627\u062e\u0644 \u0648\u0644\u0627 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0631\u062c. \u0641\u0628\u062f\u0644\u0627\u064b \u0645\u0646 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0647\u0645:





\u064a\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644\u0648\u0646 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u062f\u0627\u062e\u0644 \u0631\u0633\u0645\u064a\u064b\u0627 \u0648\u0643\u0623\u0646\u0647\u0645 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0631\u062c. \u0648\u0648\u0636\u0639\u0647\u0645 \u063a\u064a\u0631
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0642\u0631 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u064a\u0624\u062f\u064a \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0632\u064a\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0645\u0637\u0631\u062f\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0643\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0639\u0646\u0641\u0647\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062a\u0646\u062a\u0634\u0631 \u0641\u064a \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0643\u0627\u0646
\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639\u060c \u0648\u062a\u0642\u062a\u0633\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u0648\u062f \u0641\u064a \u0625\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627 \u0643\u0644\u0647\u060c \u062c\u0627\u0645\u0639\u064a\u0646 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u0646\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062b\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0633\u062c\u064a\u0644 \u0648\u062a\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u062c\u0627\u0646\u0628\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0646\u0645\u064a\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u062f \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u062c\u0627\u0646\u0628 \u0622\u062e\u0631 (
Balibar
2003: 123
).





\u0648\u0642\u062f \u0623\u0635\u0628\u062d \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0641\u0627\u0639
\u0639\u0646 \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0648\u0636\u0648\u0639\u064b\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u0646\u0642\u0627\u0634 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0627\u0635\u0631\u060c \u0628\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0631 \u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u062d\u0631\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0627\u0628\u0637
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0632\u0639\u062c\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0625\u062b\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0629 (
Habermas
1998, May et al. 2004
). \u0648\u0633\u0648\u0641 \u0646\u0634\u064a\u0631 \u0641\u064a\u0645\u0627 \u064a\u0644\u064a \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0627\u0646\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0638\u0644\u0645 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0648\u0644\u0645\u0629
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u062f\u064a\u0645\u0642\u0631\u0627\u0637\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0645\u0648\u0642\u0641\u0647\u0645\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645. \u0641\u0647\u0645\u0627 \u064a\u062a\u062d\u0643\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u062d\u0627\u0644\u0629
\u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a. \u0648\u062a\u0634\u0645\u0644 \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0627\u0635\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0637\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0628\u0627\u064a\u0646\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0641\u062a\u0627\u0621\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0627\u0637\u0646\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u062a\u062c\u0627\u0648\u0632
\u0645\u0641\u0647\u0648\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u062a\u062a\u0636\u0645\u0646 \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u062a\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0644 \u0625\u0645\u0643\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0634\u0627\u0631\u0643 \u0641\u064a
\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u062a\u0633\u0645 \u0628\u062a\u0639\u062f\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0627\u062a. \u0648\u062a\u062d\u0637 \u0645\u0646 \u0642\u064a\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0644\u062f\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0633. \u0648\u062a\u0647\u0645\u0634 \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0645\u0627
\u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u064a\u0636\u064b\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0627\u0628\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u064a\u0639\u062a\u0645\u062f \u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0633\u060c \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0631\u0648\u0627\u0628\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0626\u0644\u0629
\u0623\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u0623\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0627\u0626\u0641\u0629 \u0623\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u062d\u0628\u0629\u060c \u0628\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0631 \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0627\u0628\u0637 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0627\u062a \u062a\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u062d\u062c\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0627\u0648\u064a\u0629
\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0631\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0646 \u062c\u0627\u0646\u0628 \u0645\u0646 \u064a\u0634\u0639\u0631\u0648\u0646 \u0628\u0623\u0646\u0647\u0645 \u0623\u0642\u0644 \u062a\u0645\u064a\u0632\u064b\u0627 (
Calhoun 2004).





\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a
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Keith 2005). \u0648\u0647\u0646\u0627 \u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646
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\u0648\u0642\u062f \u0623\u0643\u062f \u201c\u0643\u064a\u062b Keith\u201d
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Isle
of Dogs
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\u0641\u064a \u0645\u0627\u0633\u0627\u062a\u0634\u0648\u0633\u062a\u0634. \u0648\u0639\u0646\u062f\u0645\u0627 \u0641\u062a\u062d\u0646\u0627 \u0635\u0641\u062d\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0631\u0627\u0626\u062f \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0648\u062c\u062f\u0646\u0627 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0631\u0648\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0627\u0626\u0641\u064a\u0629
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Prose 2008).





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Matsuda
et al. 1993, Bell 2008, Marable 2000, Hatch 2008
). \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0623\u0636\u0627\u0641\u062a
\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0634\u0631\u0648\u0639 \u0622\u0646\u0627 \u0643\u0648\u0628\u0631
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\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0642 \u0625\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0625\u0646\u062a\u0627\u062c \u0623\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u064a\u0645\u0646\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 (
Collins 2005).





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\u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631 (\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0627\u0628\u0629 \u0628\u0639\u0645\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0644\u0648\u0627\u0646)\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u064a\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0636 \u0623\u0646 \u0639\u062f\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0627\u0648\u0627\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629
\u0647\u064a \u0646\u062a\u0627\u062c \u0644\u0644\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0642\u062a\u0635\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a. \u0648\u064a\u064f\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0636 \u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0623\u0646
\u0631\u0641\u0636 \u0641\u0643\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642 \u0647\u0648 \u0636\u0631\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0644\u0646\u0647\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 (
Hatch 2008).
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\u0628\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0644\u064a\u0645 \u0648\u063a\u064a\u0631\u0647\u0627 \u062d\u062a\u0649 \u0648\u0642\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0648\u0631\u0629. \u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u064a\u064f\u0645\u0646\u0639 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062f\u062e\u0648\u0644 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0646\u0627\u062f\u0642 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0634\u0648\u0627\u0637\u0626
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062f\u0627\u0631\u0633 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0648\u0638\u0627\u0626\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062a\u062a\u0628\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0637\u0627\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0635. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0646\u0627\u062f\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0643\u0648\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0640 \u201c\u0639\u062f\u0627\u0644\u0629
\u0634\u0627\u0645\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u0645\u0637\u0644\u0642\u0629\u201d \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0623\u0634\u0627\u0631 \u0643\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0648 \u0645\u0624\u062e\u0631\u064b\u0627 (
Castro 2007).
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\u0622\u062e\u0631.





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\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0648\u0627\u062f\u062b \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0636\u062f \u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627 \u0641\u064a \u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0627 \u0648\u0625\u064a\u0637\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0627 \u0648\u0641\u0646\u0644\u0646\u062f\u0627 \u0639\u0627\u0645 2008\u060c \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062e\u0637\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0631\u0643\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0636\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0641\u064a \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627 (
ERIO 2009).





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Lattimer 2008: 45).
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Lattimer 2008). \u0648\u062a\u0633\u062a\u0646\u062f \u062a\u0644\u0643
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Harff 2003).
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\u0648\u0642\u062f \u0623\u062d\u0635\u062a \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u062d\u0642\u0648\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0639\u0627\u0645 2008 \u0623\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0639\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0625\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u062d\u064a\u062b \u062a\u0639\u0631\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a
\u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u062a\u0647\u062f\u064a\u062f\u060c \u0645\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0632 \u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u062e\u0627\u0635 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0641\u0642\u0631\u064b\u0627 \u0648\u062a\u0647\u0645\u064a\u0634\u064b\u0627. \u0648\u062a\u064f\u0639\u0631\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a
\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0625\u062b\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u062f\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0644\u063a\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0633\u064a\u0637\u0631\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0647\u064a \u0644\u064a\u0633\u062a \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0636\u0631\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0646 \u062d\u064a\u062b
\u0627\u0644\u0639\u062f\u062f\u060c \u0648\u062a\u0634\u0645\u0644 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0647\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645 \u0623\u0648 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0631\u064f\u062d\u0644\u060c \u0648\u062a\u0634\u0645\u0644 \u0623\u064a\u0636\u064b\u0627 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0647\u0627\u062c\u0631\u0629 \u0623\u0648
\u0644\u0627\u062c\u0626\u064a\u0646.





\u0623\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0639\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u062f\u0648\u0644\u0629
\u0645\u0646 \u062d\u064a\u062b \u062a\u0647\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a





1\u2013 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0644:
(\u201c\u062f\u0627\u0631\u0648\u0648\u062f\u201d \u2013 \u201c\u0647\u0648\u064a\u201d \u2013 \u201c\u0642\u0628\u0627\u0626\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0633\u062d\u0627\u0642\u201d) \u0648\u0639\u0634\u0627\u0626\u0631 \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u062c\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0648\u201d \u0648\u201d\u062c\u0627\u0628\u0648\u064a\u201d
(\u0645\u064a\u062f\u062c\u0627\u0646) \u0648\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0645\u063a\u0644\u0642\u0629 \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649.





2- \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0627\u0642: \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0634\u064a\u0639\u0629\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0646\u0629\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0643\u0631\u0627\u062f\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0643\u0645\u0627\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u064a\u062d\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0635\u0627\u0628\u0626\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u062f\u0627\u0626\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0632\u064a\u062f\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0623\u0643\u0631\u0627\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0641\u064a\u0644\u064a\u0629\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0634\u0628\u0643\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0647\u0627\u0626\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0644\u0633\u0637\u064a\u0646\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d.





3- \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0646: \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0648\u0631\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0632\u063a\u0627\u0648\u0629\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0627\u0644\u064a\u062a\u201d \u0648\u0642\u0628\u0627\u0626\u0644 \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649 \u0641\u064a \u062f\u0627\u0631\u0641\u0648\u0631 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u062f\u0646\u0643\u0627\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u064a\u0631\u201d \u0648\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0648\u0642\u0628\u0627\u0626\u0644 \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649
\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0646\u0648\u0628 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0628\u0629\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0628\u062c\u0627\u201d.





4- \u0623\u0641\u063a\u0627\u0646\u0633\u062a\u0627\u0646:
\u201c\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0632\u0627\u0631\u0627\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u062a\u0648\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0627\u062c\u064a\u0643\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0632\u0628\u0643\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0643\u0645\u0627\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0644\u0648\u0634\u201d.





5- \u0645\u064a\u0646\u0627\u0645\u0627\u0631 / \u0628\u0648\u0631\u0645\u0627:
\u201c\u0643\u0648\u0634\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0643\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0646\u064a\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0643\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0645\u0648\u0646\u0633\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0631\u0627\u062e\u064a\u0646\u064a\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0631\u0648\u0647\u064a\u0646\u063a\u0627\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0634\u0627\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0634\u064a\u0646\u201d (\u0632\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0633) \u0648\u201d\u0648\u0627\u201d.





6- \u062c\u0645\u0647\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0648\u0646\u063a\u0648:
\u201c\u0647\u064a\u0645\u0627\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0644\u064a\u0646\u062f\u0648\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0647\u0648\u0646\u062f\u064a\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0647\u0648\u062a\u0648\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0644\u0648\u0628\u0627\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0644\u0648\u0646\u062f\u0627\u201d \u0648\u201d\u062a\u0648\u062a\u0633\u064a/\u0628\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0627\u0645\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0646\u062c\u064a\u201d \u0648\u201d\u062a\u0648\u0627/\u0645\u0628\u0648\u062a\u064a\u201d





7- \u0628\u0627\u0643\u0633\u062a\u0627\u0646: \u201c\u0623\u0645\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0627\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0644\u0648\u0634\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0646\u062f\u0648\u0633\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u0627\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u062a\u0648\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0646\u062f\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u062f\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649.





8- \u0646\u064a\u062c\u064a\u0631\u064a\u0627: \u201c\u0625\u0628\u0648\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u062c\u0627\u0648\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0623\u0648\u062c\u0648\u0646\u064a\u201d \u0648\u201d\u064a\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0647\u0627\u0648\u0633\u0627 (\u0645\u0633\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0646) \u0648\u0645\u0633\u064a\u062d\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0645\u0627\u0644.





9- \u0623\u062b\u064a\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0627: \u201c\u0623\u0646\u0648\u0627\u0643\u0627\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0623\u0641\u0631\u0627\u0633\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0648\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0635\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649 \u0623\u0635\u063a\u0631.





10 \u2013 \u062a\u0634\u0627\u062f: \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a
\u201c\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0627\u0631\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0628\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u062c\u0646\u0648\u0628\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d





11- \u0633\u064a\u0631\u064a\u0644\u0627\u0646\u0643\u0627:
\u201c\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0644\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0646\u201d





12- \u0625\u064a\u0631\u0627\u0646: \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0628\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0630\u0631\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0647\u0627\u0626\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0644\u0648\u0634\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0643\u0631\u0627\u062f\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0643\u0645\u0627\u0646\u201d.





13- \u062c\u0645\u0647\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0627
\u0627\u0644\u0648\u0633\u0637\u0649: \u201c\u0643\u0627\u0628\u0627\u201d (\u0633\u0627\u0631\u0627)\u060c \u0648\u201d\u0645\u0627\u0628\u0648\u0645\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0645\u0648\u0628\u0648\u0631\u0648\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0622\u0643\u0627\u201d.





14- \u0644\u0628\u0646\u0627\u0646: \u201c\u0627\u0644\u062f\u0631\u0648\u0632\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u064a\u062d\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0627\u0631\u0646\u0629\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0644\u0633\u0637\u064a\u0646\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0646\u0629.





15- \u0633\u0627\u062d\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u062c:
\u201c\u0645\u0627\u0646\u062f\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0645\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629\u201d (\u062f\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0627)\u060c \u0648\u201d\u0633\u064a\u0646\u0648\u0641\u0648\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0628\u064a\u062a\u0627\u201d \u0648\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649 \u062d\u062f\u064a\u062b\u0629.





16- \u0623\u0648\u063a\u0646\u062f\u0627: \u201c\u0623\u0634\u062a\u0648\u0644\u064a\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0643\u0627\u0631\u0627\u0645\u0648\u062c\u0648\u0646\u062c\u201d





17- \u0623\u0646\u062c\u0648\u0644\u0627: \u201c\u0628\u0627\u0643\u0648\u0646\u062c\u0648\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0643\u0627\u0628\u064a\u0646\u062f\u0627\u0633\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0623\u0648\u0641\u064a\u0645\u0628\u0648\u0646\u062f\u0648\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0648\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0633\u0627\u0646\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0643\u0648\u064a\u0633\u064a\u201d





18 \u2013 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0646:
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u0645\u0634\u0648\u0646 \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0631\u0648\u201d (\u0645\u0633\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0646) \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0635\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0648\u0646.





19- \u0628\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0646\u062f\u064a:
\u201c\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u062a\u0648\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0648\u062a\u0633\u064a\u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0648\u0627\u201d





20- \u0647\u0627\u064a\u062a\u064a: \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a
\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629.





\u0627\u0644\u0635\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0644: \u0623\u0632\u0645\u0627\u062a
\u0648\u0635\u0631\u0627\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0634\u0627\u0626\u0631





\u0644\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0623\u0633\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0627\u0645
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0648\u0636\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u0642\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0644\u063a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0639\u0634\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u064a\u0646\u062a\u0645\u064a
\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u062f (
Bestman 1999). \u0642\u0631\u0648\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0636\u0637\u0647\u0627\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0638\u0644\u0645 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0644
\u0642\u0627\u0645\u062a \u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0634\u0627\u0626\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0643\u0628\u0631 \u0628\u0627\u0636\u0637\u0647\u0627\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0634\u0627\u0626\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u063a\u0631 \u0648\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649\u060c \u0648\u0645\u0627 \u0632\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631 \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0645\u0631.
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\u201c\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0644\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u062d\u062f\u201d (\u0642\u0628\u064a\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a)\u060c \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0631\u0643\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0636\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629\u201d (\u0642\u0628\u064a\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u062c\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0646)\u060c
\u0648\u201d\u062d\u0631\u0643\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0637\u0646\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0644\u064a\u201d (\u0642\u0628\u064a\u0644\u0629 \u0645\u0627\u062c\u064a\u0631\u062a\u064a\u0646) (
World Bank
2005
).





\u0645\u064a\u0627\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0631 (\u0628\u0648\u0631\u0645\u0627)





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\u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0628\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0627\u062c\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0638\u0631\u0648\u0641\u0627 \u0645\u0631\u0639\u0628\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0645 \u0627\u0646\u062a\u0642\u0627\u062f \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631 \u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u062a\u0643\u0631\u0631 (
UN 2008).





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\u0645\u0639\u0633\u0643\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0634 \u0641\u064a \u0648\u0644\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0643\u0627\u064a\u0646.





\u0648\u062a\u0634\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0631
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\u062f\u064a\u0627\u0631\u0647\u0645 (
UN 2006). \u0648\u062a\u0646\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0643\u0648\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0641 \u0628\u0648\u062c\u0648\u062f \u0647\u0624\u0644\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u0631\u062f\u064a\u0646
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\u0645\u0646\u0638\u0645\u0629 \u062d\u0642\u0648\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646 \u0623\u0646 \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0623\u0637\u0641\u0627\u0644\u0627\u064b \u062a\u0645 \u062a\u062c\u0646\u064a\u062f\u0647\u0645 \u0644\u0642\u0645\u0639 \u062b\u0648\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u062b\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0639\u0645\u0631\u0647\u0645
12 \u0639\u0627\u0645\u064b\u0627. \u0648\u062a\u0642\u062f\u0631 \u0645\u0646\u0638\u0645\u0629 \u201c\u0647\u064a\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0631\u0627\u064a\u062a\u0633 \u0648\u0648\u062a\u0634\u201d (
HRW) (2002)
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\u0645\u0646 \u0647\u0624\u0644\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0637\u0641\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0631\u0628 \u0623\u0648 \u062a\u0631\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u062f\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0633\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0625\u0646\u0647 \u064a\u062a\u0645 \u0636\u0631\u0628\u0647 \u0648 \u0625\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u062a\u062c\u0646\u064a\u062f\u0647 \u0623\u0648 \u064a\u064f\u0633\u062c\u0646
\u062d\u062a\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u062a (
HRW 15 Oct. 2002).





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\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0642\u062a\u0644 \u0648\u0645\u0635\u0627\u062f\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0627\u0636\u064a \u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u0648\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0636\u062f \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u062b\u0646\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0643\u0646\u062a\u064a\u062c\u0629 \u0644\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0646\u0632\u0648\u062d
\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a \u0645\u0646 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0646 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u062a\u0627\u064a\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062f. \u0648\u0639\u0646 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0634\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0641\u0647\u0645 \u0623\u064a\u0636\u064b\u0627 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649 \u0639\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0646\u0641\u0633
\u0627\u0644\u0638\u0631\u0648\u0641 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0634 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0648\u0631\u0645\u064a (
HRW 2009).





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\u062a\u0627\u064a\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062f (
BBC News 2009a). \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u0627\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0646
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0644\u0627\u062c\u0626\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a\u0646 \u0623\u0639\u064a\u062f\u0648\u0627 \u0645\u0631\u0629 \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0648\u0627\u0637\u0626 \u0642\u062f \u0623\u0631\u0633\u0644\u0648\u0627 \u0625\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0641\u064a \u0642\u0648\u0627\u0631\u0628 \u0628\u062f\u0648\u0646 \u0645\u062d\u0631\u0643\u0627\u062a\u060c
\u0648\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0645 \u062a\u0642\u064a\u064a\u062f \u0623\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0647\u0645 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0628\u0627\u0644 \u0645\u062a\u0631\u0648\u0643\u064a\u0646 \u0644\u0644\u0623\u0642\u062f\u0627\u0631\u060c \u0648\u0623\u0646 \u0645\u0639\u0638\u0645 \u0647\u0624\u0644\u0627\u0621 \u0643\u0627\u0646\u0648\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0647\u064a\u0646\u063a\u064a\u0627\u201d
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\u0646\u062d\u0646 \u0645\u0639\u0627\u0642\u0648\u0646 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u064a\u062f. \u0644\u0627 \u0646\u0633\u062a\u0637\u064a\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0644\u0623\u0646\u0647 \u062a\u0645 \u062a\u0642\u0637\u064a\u0639 \u0623\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0646\u0627 \u0648\u0623\u0631\u062c\u0644\u0646\u0627. \u0648\u0644\u064a\u0633 \u0644\u062f\u064a\u0646\u0627
\u062a\u0635\u0631\u064a\u062d \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0641\u0631\u060c \u0646\u062d\u0646 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0639\u0644 \u0639\u0628\u064a\u062f \u0641\u064a \u0648\u0637\u0646\u0646\u0627\u2018\u2018(
Thompson 2006).





\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0630\u062c \u0645\u0639\u0627\u0635\u0631\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0637\u0631\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0628\u0626\u0629





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\u0627\u0644\u0648\u0633\u0637\u0649 \u0630\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u063a\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0644\u0645\u0629 \u062a\u0642\u0631\u064a\u0628\u064b\u0627\u060c \u0648\u064a\u062a\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0647\u0627\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0645\u0631 \u0644\u062d\u0642\u0648\u0642
\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646 \u0641\u064a\u0645\u0627 \u064a\u062a\u0639\u0644\u0642 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062f\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649\u060c \u0648\u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u064a\u062d\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u064a\u0638\u0647\u0631 \u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u0639\u0627\u0646\u064a
\u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0636\u0637\u0647\u0627\u062f \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0641 \u0641\u064a \u0643\u0644 \u062f\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645 \u062a\u0642\u0631\u064a\u0628\u064b\u0627 (
Eastwood and
Mihiar 2008
).





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\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u062f\u0648\u062f\u0629 \u062c\u062f\u064b\u0627 \u0641\u064a \u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0635\u0646\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0627\u0631\u060c \u0648\u0639\u062f\u0645 \u0643\u0641\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u062f\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u062f\u0648\u062f\u0629
\u0623\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062f\u0648\u0645\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u062d\u0642 \u062a\u0642\u0631\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u064a\u0631 (
Bryan 2008).





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\u201c\u0625\u0631\u064a\u0643 \u0648\u064a\u062a
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\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0627\u0631\u0629 (
Witte 2008: 132)\u2018\u2018.





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\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a\u0646 \u064a\u0646\u0627\u062f\u0648\u0646 \u0628\u062d\u0642\u0648\u0642\u0647\u0645\u060c \u0641\u064a \u0622\u0644\u0627\u0633\u0643\u0627 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u062c\u0646\u062a\u064a\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0627\u060c \u0648\u062d\u062a\u0649 \u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a\u0646 \u062a\u0645 \u062a\u0631\u0648\u064a\u062f\u0647\u0645 \u0633\u0627\u0628\u0642\u064b\u0627 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0628\u0648\u062a\u0634\u064a\u201d \u0641\u064a \u062c\u0646\u0648\u0628 \u0634\u064a\u0644\u064a \u0648\u201d\u062c\u0648\u0631\u0627\u0646\u064a\u201d \u0641\u064a
\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0632\u064a\u0644. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0646\u0627\u062f\u0649 \u0647\u0624\u0644\u0627\u0621 \u0628\u0636\u0631\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u062f\u0627\u062f \u0623\u0631\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062c\u062f\u0627\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0645\u0627 \u0632\u0627\u0644\u062a \u062a\u062d\u062a \u0633\u064a\u0637\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0643\u0648\u0645\u0629
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0642\u0637\u0627\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0635 \u0648\u0645\u0627 \u0632\u0627\u0644\u0648\u0627 \u064a\u0633\u062a\u0641\u064a\u062f\u0648\u0646 \u0645\u0646\u0647\u0627 (
Bryan 2008).
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\u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644\u0627\u064b \u0645\u0639\u064a\u0646\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0636\u0648\u0639 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0628\u0639\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0631\u063a\u0645 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0627\u0628\u0627\u0646 \u062a\u0632\u0639\u0645 \u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639 \u0645\u062a\u062c\u0627\u0646\u0633 \u0625\u062b\u0646\u064a\u064b\u0627
\u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u062a\u0642\u0644\u064a\u062f\u064a \u0625\u0644\u0627 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0638\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0643\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0634\u064a\u0631 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u062a\u0648\u0627\u062c\u0647 \u062a\u0645\u064a\u064a\u0632\u064b\u0627
\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u064b\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0623\u0646\u0647\u0645 \u0645\u062d\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0648\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u062a\u0647\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0645\u064a\u0632\u0629 (
Eastwood and
Farar 2008
).





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Will
Kymlicka
\u201d \u0648\u201d\u062c\u0648\u0632\u064a\u0641 \u0631\u0627\u0632 Joseph Raz\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u062c\u0648\u062f\u064a\u062b \u0633\u0643\u0644\u0627\u0631
Judith Sklar\u201d (Preece 2005).





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\u0644\u0644\u0645\u0646\u063a\u0648\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646 (
Eastwood and Farar 2008).





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