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\u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628 \u0648\u0641\u0642\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0633\u0645\u064a\u0629

Free download \u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628 \u0648\u0641\u0642\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0633\u0645\u064a\u0629 free photo or picture to be edited with GIMP online image editor

This is the free photo or picture example named \u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628 \u0648\u0641\u0642\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0633\u0645\u064a\u0629 for OffiDocs app Gimp, which can be considered as an online image editor or an online photo studio.

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Download or edit the free picture \u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628 \u0648\u0641\u0642\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0633\u0645\u064a\u0629 for GIMP online editor. It is an image that is valid for other graphic or photo editors in OffiDocs such as Inkscape online and OpenOffice Draw online or LibreOffice online by OffiDocs.

\u064a\u0636\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0623\u0647\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062c\u0627\u0621\u062a \u0641\u064a
\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0635\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0627\u0646\u064a \u0645\u0646 \u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628
\u201c\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0635\u0628
\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u201d \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0627\u062f\u0631 \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0631\u0643\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a \u0644\u0644\u062a\u0631\u062c\u0645\u0629



\u062a\u0623\u0644\u064a\u0641 : \u0625\u064a\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u0648\u0648



\u062a\u0631\u062c\u0645\u0629: \u0639\u0627\u0637\u0641 \u0645\u0639\u062a\u0645\u062f\u060c \u0643\u0631\u0645
\u0639\u0628\u0627\u0633\u060c \u0639\u0627\u062f\u0644 \u0639\u0628\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0645\u064a\u062f



https://geo-house.info/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%86%D8%B5%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B9%D8%B5%D8%A8-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D9%82%D9%8A-210x300.jpg



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\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0639\u0644\u064a \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u062f\u0644\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u062d\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062f\u0642\u0642 \u0644\u0644\u0645\u064a\u062f\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629.
\u0641\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645 \u064a\u0648\u0641\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0636\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0646\u0638\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0648\u0636\u0648\u062d\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0641\u0636\u0644\u0627
\u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0636\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0630\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0642\u062a. \u0648\u062a\u0638\u0647\u0631 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0636\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0643\u0627\u0646\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0631\u0643\u0632\u064a\u0629
\u0644\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u0627\u062b\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0645\u0627 \u062a\u062a\u0636\u0645\u0646\u0647 \u0645\u0646 \u062a\u0646\u0627\u0642\u0636\u0627\u062a
(Hesse 2007). \u0641\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u062f\u0649 \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0642\u0631\u0646\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u062a\u0631\u0633\u064a\u062e \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062b\u0628\u062a\u0629 \u0641\u0649
\u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a \u201c\u062c\u064a\u0648\u0631\u062c\u064a\u064a \u0643\u0648\u0641\u064a\u0647
Georges Cuvier \u201d \u0639\u0627\u0645 1800 \u0640 \u0631\u0627\u0626\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0645
\u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0643\u062a\u0634\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u0627\u0631\u0643 \u0644\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u064a
DNA \u0640 \u0623\u0639\u0627\u062f \u062c\u064a\u0645\u0633 \u0648\u0627\u062a\u0633\u0648\u0646 James Waston \u062a\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645 \u062d\u062c\u062c \u0645\u0634\u0627\u0628\u0647\u0629. \u0641\u0642\u062f \u0631\u0628\u0637 \u0643\u0648\u0641\u064a\u0647 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u062a\u064a\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0631\u0645\u0649
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\u0648\u0627\u062a\u0633\u0648\u0646 \u0645\u0642\u062a\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u062e\u0637\u0627\u0647
.



Description: https://geo-house.info/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/James_Watson_2005_Othmer_Gold_Medal.TIF-255x300.jpg\u062c\u064a\u0645\u0633 \u0648\u0627\u062a\u0633\u0648\u0646 James Waston



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\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062a\u064a\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0637\u0627\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0641\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0627\u0632\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0627\u0631\u062a\u0628\u0637\u062a \u0644\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0629
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(Hall 1992). \u0648\u0641\u0649 \u0639\u0627\u0645 2007 \u0630\u0647\u0628
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Hunt- Grube 2007). \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0623\u062f\u062a \u0647\u0630\u0647
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.



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.



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(Banton 1997).



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.



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The West and the Rest\u201d .



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Systema Naturea \u201d
(1758)
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Augstein
1996:65 ).
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.



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Stephen Jay Gould
(1981)
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.



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de gobineau
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Description: https://geo-house.info/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Screenshot_2-194x300.jpg



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\u201d On the Origin of
Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in
the Struggle for Life (1859)
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\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0643\u0627\u0621. \u0648\u0644\u064a\u0633 \u0628\u0639\u064a\u062f \u0645\u0627 \u062d\u062f\u062b \u0645\u0624\u062e\u0631\u0627 \u0641\u0649 \u062c\u0645\u0647\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0634\u064a\u0643 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0646 \u0645\u062d\u0643\u0645\u0629 \u0625\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0649
\u0645\u062f\u064a\u0646\u0629 \u0623\u0648\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u0627
Ostrava \u0642\u0636\u062a \u0628\u062a\u0639\u0648\u064a\u0636 \u0625\u0645\u0631\u0623\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627 \u062a\u0639\u0631\u0636\u062a
\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0642\u0645 \u0625\u062c\u0628\u0627\u0631\u0649 \u0642\u0627\u0645 \u0628\u0647\u0627 \u0637\u0628\u064a\u0628 \u062f\u0648\u0646 \u0645\u0648\u0627\u0641\u0642\u062a\u0647\u0627
.



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\u0633\u0627\u0631\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u0631\u0648\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0632\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u062a\u062d\u0633\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0644 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062e\u0637\u0649 \u062a\u064a\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u062d\u062b \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a \u0641\u0649
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(Proctor 1988). \u0641\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649
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\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u064a\u201d(1916) \u0623\u0648\u0644\u0649 \u0639\u0646\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0631\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0631 \u0645\u0633\u0626\u0648\u0644\u0629 \u0645\u0628\u062f\u0626\u064a\u0627 \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u062c\u0627\u0632
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\u0648\u064a\u0644\u064a\u0627\u0645 \u0631\u064a\u0628\u064a\u0644\u0649 (1899) \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0631\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0628\u062d\u0631 \u0645\u062a\u0648\u0633\u0637\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0645\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0631 \u0625\u0644\u0649
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\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0646\u0649 \u0625\u064a\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0646 \u0641\u064a\u0634\u0631
Eugen Fisher \u0648\u0632\u0645\u0644\u0627\u0624\u0647 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0645\u062b\u0627\u0644
\u0641\u0631\u064a\u062a\u0632 \u0644\u064a\u0646\u0632
Fritz Lenz\u060c \u0648\u0625\u0631\u0648\u064a\u0646 \u0628\u0627\u0631Erwin Barr \u060c \u0641\u064a \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0647\u0645 \u0628\u0639\u0646\u0648\u0627\u0646
\u201c\u0627\u0644\u0648\u0631\u0627\u062b\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629\u201d(1923) \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0642\u0631\u0623\u0647 \u0623\u062f\u0648\u0644\u0641 \u0647\u062a\u0644\u0631 \u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0623\u0646 \u064a\u062e\u0637 \u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628\u0647
\u201c\u0643\u0641\u0627\u062d\u0649
\u201d\u201dmein kampf (1923). (Centre
for Holocaust and genocide studies 2007).



\u062a\u0641\u0646\u064a\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629



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\u201cElazar Barkan (1992:1). \u0641\u0631\u063a\u0645 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0627 \u0627\u0643\u062a\u0646\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u063a\u0645\u0648\u0636
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.



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(Barkan 199 ). \u0648\u062a\u062d\u0627\u0634\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0647\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0636\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0648\u0636 \u0643\u062b\u064a\u0631\u0627 \u0641\u0649
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\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0646\u062b\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0630\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0627\u0641\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0646\u062d\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629
.



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Barun
\u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0641\u0642\u062f \u0643\u0627\u0646
\u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0644\u0647 \u0623\u062b\u0631 \u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631. \u0625\u0630 \u0623\u0646 \u0631\u0633\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0643\u062a\u0648\u0631\u0627\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0647\u0627 \u0641\u0649 \u0639\u0627\u0645 1932 \u0648\u062d\u0645\u0644\u062a \u0639\u0646\u0648\u0627\u0646
\u201c\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629: \u0646\u0638\u0631\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0639\u0646 \u0623\u0635\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0648\u0622\u062b\u0627\u0631\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a\u0645\u0627 \u0642\u0628\u0644
\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0648\u0631\u0629\u201d \u0646\u0642\u062f\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0643\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u0646\u0627\u062f\u0649 \u0628\u0623\u0646 \u0623\u0635\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0638\u0647\u0631 \u0646\u062a\u064a\u062c\u0629 \u0644\u063a\u0632\u0648 \u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628
\u0627\u0644\u063a\u0627\u0644
Gaul \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646\u060c \u0631\u063a\u0645 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0644\u064a\u0633 \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0633\u0646\u062f \u0644\u0644\u0646\u0642\u0627\u0621
\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u060c \u0625\u0630 \u0623\u0646\u0647\u0645 (\u0627\u0644\u063a\u0627\u0644 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646) \u0643\u0627\u0646\u0648\u0627 \u201c\u062e\u0644\u064a\u0637\u0627 \u0628\u0627\u0626\u0633\u0627 \u0644\u064a\u0633 \u0641\u0642\u0637 \u0645\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0648\u0625\u0646\u0645\u0627 \u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u0646\u0647\u0645 \u0623\u064a\u0628\u064a\u0631\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u0648\u0633\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u0648\u0641\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0648\u0646\u201d (\u0645\u0642\u062a\u0628\u0633 \u0641\u0649
Vinciguerra 2006). \u0648\u0641\u0649 \u0639\u0645\u0644\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0634\u0647\u0631\u0629: \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629: \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0631\u0627\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062b\u0629\u201d
(1937) \u0630\u0647\u0628 \u0628\u0627\u0631\u0648\u0646 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0644
:



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\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0644\u0641\u0642 \u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0636\u0637\u0647\u0627\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0644\u064a\u060c \u0641\u0642\u062f \u0623\u0635\u0628\u062d\u062a \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0643\u0648\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0646\u0645\u0637\u0627\u064b \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0643\u064a\u0631
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\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0646\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u0627\u062a\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0648\u0645\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0635\u0644\u0627\u062d \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u201d. \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u062d\u0648 \u0633\u062e\u0631
\u0628\u0627\u0631\u0648\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u201c\u201d\u062a\u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0641\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0645\u0627\u063a \u201d \u0644\u0646\u0638\u0631\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u062c\u0627\u062f\u0644 \u0628\u0642\u0648\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u062c\u0644
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.



\u0648\u0644\u0642\u062f \u0627\u062a\u0633\u0639 \u0645\u062c\u0627\u0644 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062c\u062c \u0644\u064a\u0634\u0645\u0644 \u0623\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644\u0627\u064b \u0648\u0627\u0633\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0641\u0648\u0630 \u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0636\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629\u060c
\u0641\u0649 \u0645\u0642\u062f\u0645\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0645\u0627 \u0643\u062a\u0628\u0647 \u0623\u062d\u062f \u0637\u0644\u0627\u0628 \u0628\u0648\u0627\u0632 \u0644\u0644\u062f\u0643\u062a\u0648\u0631\u0627\u0647\u060c \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u0623\u0634\u0644\u064a \u0645\u0648\u0646\u062a\u0627\u062c\u0648
Ashley Montagu\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0623\u0637\u0631\u0648\u062d\u062a\u0647 \u062a\u062d\u0645\u0644 \u0639\u0646\u0648\u0627\u0646 \u201c\u0623\u0633\u0637\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631
\u062e\u0637\u0648\u0631\u0629: \u0627\u0644\u0645\u063a\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u201d \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0646\u0634\u0631 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0639\u0627\u0645 1942. \u0648\u0646\u0638\u0631\u0627\u064b \u0644\u0644\u0631\u0639\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0631\u0627\u0641\u0642
\u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0632\u0649\u060c \u0648\u0638\u0647\u0648\u0631 \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0628 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0647\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u0649 \u062d\u062f\u062b \u062a\u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0642\u0641 \u0646\u062d\u0648
\u062a\u0641\u0646\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u0627\u0643\u062a\u0633\u0628 \u0634\u0631\u0639\u064a\u0647 \u0648\u0623\u0635\u0628\u062d \u0645\u0648\u0642\u0641\u0627 \u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627\u064b \u0648\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0634\u0627\u0631
(Barkan 1992: 345).



\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062d\u062a\u0641\u0627\u0638 \u0628\u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0642\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0627\u0629\u060c: \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0639\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0627\u0626\u062f \u0648\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0642\u0634\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0643\u0627\u0621



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\u062c\u064a\u0645\u0633 \u0648\u0627\u062a\u0633\u0648\u0646
James Watson. \u0648\u0641\u0649 \u0633\u0628\u064a\u0644 \u0628\u062d\u062b\u0647 \u0639\u0646 \u0645\u0635\u0627\u062f\u0631 \u062a\u0645\u0648\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629
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William Tucker \u0623\u062b\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0644\u0639\u0628\u0647
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\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u062d \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0644\u0648\u0645\u0627\u062a. \u0648\u0644\u0639\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0646\u062f\u0648\u0642 \u0641\u064a \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u062f\u0648\u0631 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u0636\u063a\u0637 \u0644\u062a\u062d\u0633\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0644. \u0648\u0645\u0627\u0632\u0627\u0644 \u0647\u0630\u0627
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\u062f\u0627\u0631\u0648\u064a\u0646 \u0648\u062c\u0627\u0644\u062a
Galt\u0644\u0644\u0627\u062a\u062c\u0627\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0645 \u0641\u0649 \u0645\u062c\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0645\u062b\u0644
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(WWW.Pioneerfund.org).



\u0644\u0642\u062f \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0647\u0627\u0631\u064a \u0644\u0648\u0641\u0644\u0646 Harry Laughlin \u0623\u0648\u0644 \u0631\u0626\u064a\u0633 \u0644\u0647\u0630\u0627
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\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u064a\u062f\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0647\u062c\u0631\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0639\u0627\u0645 1924 \u0648\u0625\u062c\u0631\u0627\u0621 \u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0642\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0648\u0631\u0649 \u0641\u0649 \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u062b\u0644\u0627\u062b\u064a\u0646 \u0648\u0644\u0627\u064a\u0629.
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.



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\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u062a\u062c\u0647 \u0645\u0643\u062a\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0632\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0644\u0645\u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062f\u0627\u0631\u0633 \u0648\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644
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(Tucker 2002:45: 53).
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\u0643\u0648\u0643\u0648\u0644\u0648\u0643\u0633 \u0643\u0644\u0627\u0646
Ku Klux Klan (\u0648\u0647\u0649 \u062c\u0645\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0625\u0631\u0647\u0627\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u0646\u0634\u0626\u062a \u062d\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0649 \u0639\u0627\u0645
1866 \u0644\u062a\u0631\u0633\u064a\u062e \u0633\u064a\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0636 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0646\u0648\u062c) \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0625\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0648\u0627\u0637\u0646\u0647\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u064a\u0629
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.



\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u062a\u0648\u0643\u0631 \u0641\u0649 \u0637\u0644\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0648\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0639\u0645 \u0644\u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0646\u062f\u0648\u0642. \u0648\u0645\u0646 \u0628\u0639\u062f\u0647 \u0627\u0633\u062a\u0645\u0631
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Arther Jensen &
Hans Eysenck
\u0641\u0649 \u062a\u0639\u0632\u064a\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0637\u0627\u0644\u0628
\u0627\u0644\u0631\u0626\u064a\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0642\u0644\u064a \u0648\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0643\u0627\u0621. \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u062d\u0635\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0646\u062f\u0648\u0642
\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062f\u0639\u0645 \u0645\u0624\u0633\u0633\u0629 \u0628\u0631\u0627\u062f\u0644\u064a
Bradely\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0645\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0645\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0628\u062d\u0627\u062b \u0641\u0649 \u0645\u062c\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u062d\u0646\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0631\u0633\u064a
\u201d The bell curve
\u201c(1994)
\u0648\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u064a\u062f \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646
\u0631\u064a\u062a\u0634\u0627\u0631\u062f \u0647\u064a\u0631\u0646\u0634\u062a\u064a\u0627\u064a\u0646 \u0648\u062a\u0634\u0627\u0631\u0644\u0632 \u0645\u0648\u0631\u0627\u064a
Richard Herrnstein
& Charles Murray.
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:



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\u0639\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0645\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0631\u060c \u0628\u0644 \u0648\u0623\u064a\u0636\u0627 \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0626\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0648\u0649. \u0625\u0646 \u0645\u062d\u0627\u0648\u0644\u0629 \u0625\u0646\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0623\u0645\u0631
\u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a \u0648\u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0648\u0627\u0642\u0639\u064a. \u0641\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0647\u0649 \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0645\u062c\u0631\u062f \u0644\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u0629
\u201d.



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\u0639\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u062f\u0646\u0649\u060c \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u064a\u0642\u0648\u0644
:



\u0627\u0638\u0647\u0631\u062a \u0645\u0626\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0623\u062c\u0631\u064a\u062a \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0644\u0627\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0633 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645
\u0623\u0646 \u0645\u062a\u0648\u0633\u0637 \u0627\u062e\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0643\u0627\u0621 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0628\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0634\u0631\u0642 \u0622\u0633\u064a\u0648\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u062a\u062d\u0648\u0645 \u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0642\u064a\u0645\u0629 106 \u061b \u0648\u062a\u0628\u0644\u063a \u0646\u062d\u0648
100 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0628\u0629 \u0644\u0630\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0636\u0627\u0621\u060c \u0628\u064a\u0646\u0645\u0627 \u062a\u0646\u062e\u0641\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u064a\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0649 85 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0628\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0641\u0649
\u0627\u0644\u0648\u0644\u0627\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u062d\u062f\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0644\u0646\u062d\u0648 70 \u0641\u0649 \u0623\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0627 \u062c\u0646\u0648\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u062d\u0631\u0627\u0621
. (www.Pioneerfund.org\u060c accessed 26 oct.2007)



\u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0627\u0635\u0631 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629



\u0644\u0642\u062f \u0642\u0627\u0645 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0628\u0648\u0628 \u0643\u0627\u0631\u062a\u0631 Bob Carter (2007)
\u0648\u0631\u064a\u062a\u0634\u0627\u0631\u062f \u062a\u0627\u062a\u0648\u0646 Richard Tattun (2007) \u0628\u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0641\u062d\u0635 \u0644\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0633\u062a\u062f\u0627\u0645\u0629 \u0648\u0642\u0648\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0642
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The Human Genome
Project
\u060c
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.



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(www.genomicsforum.ac.uk).



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\u201d.



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.



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\u0645\u0624\u062e\u0631\u0627\u064b \u0645\u0646\u062a\u062f\u0649 \u0639\u0644\u064a \u0634\u0628\u0643\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u062a\u0631\u0646\u062a \u062a\u062d\u062a \u0639\u0646\u0648\u0627\u0646 \u201c\u0647\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u062d\u0642\u064a\u0642\u0629\u061f \u0648\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0641\u0649 \u0623\u0639\u0642\u0627\u0628 \u0645\u0627
\u0630\u0647\u0628 \u0625\u0644\u064a\u0647 \u0623\u0631\u0645\u0627\u0646\u062f \u0644\u064a\u0631\u0648\u064a
Armand Leroi (\u0648\u0647\u0648 \u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0641\u0649 \u0645\u062c\u0627\u0644
\u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0643\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0645\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0637\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0644\u0646\u062f\u0646) \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629
\u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646 \u062a\u0645\u064a\u064a\u0632\u0647\u0627 \u062c\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0627\u064b. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0630\u0647\u0628 \u0644\u064a\u0631\u0648\u064a \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0639\u0631\u064a\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0633\u0648\u0641 \u064a\u062d\u0633\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0627\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0633\u0648\u0641 \u064a\u0633\u0627\u0639\u062f\u0646\u0627 \u0641\u0649 \u0625\u062f\u0631\u0627\u0643 \u0648\u062a\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0631 \u0648\u062d\u0645\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u063a\u0645\u0648\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062e\u0632\u0648\u0646
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Andaman (\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0646\u062f). \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0623\u0634\u0627\u0631
\u0644\u064a\u0631\u0648\u064a \u0625\u0644\u064a \u0625\u0645\u0643\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0639\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0632\u062c \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0631\u0627\u062b\u0649 \u0641\u0649 \u0639\u0645\u0644 \u062a\u0642\u0646\u064a\u0627\u062a \u062a\u062e\u0637\u064a\u0637\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0645\u0643\u0646\u0647\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u201c\u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0648\u0635\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0633\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u064a\u062a\u0645\u062a\u0639 \u0628\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0631\u0648\u064a\u062c\u064a\u0648\u0646\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u062c\u0648\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0645\u0631\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u0645\u064a\u0632 \u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u062c\u0632\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0633\u0648\u0644\u0648\u0645\u0648\u0646\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0648\u062c\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0637\u062d \u0644\u0634\u0639\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0648\u064a\u062a
lnuit (\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0633\u0643\u064a\u0645\u0648)\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062c\u0641\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0648\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u064a\u0645\u064a\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0646 (Leroi 2006). \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0630\u0647\u0628 \u0644\u064a\u0631\u0648\u064a \u0623\u064a\u0636\u0627\u064b \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0634\u0627\u0628\u0647 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0628\u0636\u0639\u0629 \u0645\u0626\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a
\u0645\u0646 \u0634\u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0643\u0634\u0641 \u0639\u0646 \u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u0644\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0633 \u0648\u0641\u0642 \u062e\u0645\u0633 \u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0645\u062e\u0632\u0646\u0629 \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0633\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0622\u0644\u064a \u0648\u0647\u0649
\u201c\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0628\u0631\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0631\u0648\u0641\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0646\u062b\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u0644\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0629\u201d \u0641\u0649 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0623\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0627\u060c
\u0648\u0634\u0631\u0642 \u0622\u0633\u064a\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0623\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0627 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062c\u0632\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u064a\u0637\u0629 \u0628\u0647\u0627
.



\u0648\u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0648\u0631\u0642\u0629 \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649 \u0628\u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0644\u062a\u0642\u0649 \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0634\u0628\u0643\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0631\u0646\u062a \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u0631\u0648\u064a \u062f\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631 Troy Duster (2005) \u064a\u0642\u062a\u0631\u062d \u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0623\u0646\u0646\u0627 \u0646\u0648\u0627\u062c\u0647 \u0627\u062d\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0627
\u064a\u0639\u0631\u0641 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0623\u062b\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u062f\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629
Cascading Effect \u0646\u062a\u064a\u062c\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0645\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0633\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0628\u062d\u062b\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0647\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0633\u0648\u0641 \u201c\u062a\u0639\u064a\u062f \u062a\u0633\u062c\u064a\u0644 \u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u0641\u0642 \u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0629 \u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0633\u0627\u062a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629\u201d. \u0625\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0633\u0645\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0639\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062e\u0632\u0646\u0629 \u0648\u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0627\u0646\u0627\u062a\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0639\u0631\u0641\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u0648\u062a\u0648\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u064a\u0636\u0627\u060c \u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646 \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0641\u0636\u0649 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0625\u0636\u0641\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0627\u0628\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0627\u062f\u064a
Reification \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0628\u0645\u0627 \u0644\u062f\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0645\u0644\u0627\u0645\u062d \u0648\u0631\u0627\u062b\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0645\u064a\u0632\u0629.



\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0646



\u062b\u0645\u0629 \u062c\u062f\u0644 \u0645\u062b\u0627\u0631 \u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629\u060c \u062a\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0633 \u0641\u064a\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u064a\u0645\u0646\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0637\u0631\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0627\u0631\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0622\u062e\u0631\u064a\u0646. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0647\u062a\u0645 \u0628\u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u062f\u0644
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0642\u0627\u0634 \u0645\u062c\u0644\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0646\u0649 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u0649 (\u0627\u0646\u0638\u0631
www.ipcb.org/). \u0641\u0642\u062f \u0633\u0644\u0637 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0644\u0633
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\u0648\u062f\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0639\u062a\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0648\u0627\u062d\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0645 \u0644\u062d\u064a\u0627\u062a\u0647\u0645 \u0641\u0636\u0644\u0627\u064b \u0639\u0646 \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0642\u0627\u062f\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0648\u062c\u0647\u062a \u0644\u0644\u0645\u0634\u0631\u0648\u0639 \u0628\u0633\u0628\u0628 \u0641\u0634\u0644\u0647
\u0627\u0644\u0630\u0631\u064a\u0639 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0635\u062f\u0649 \u0644\u0644\u0643\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0636\u0627\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0642\u064a\u0629. \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0648\u0638\u0641\u062a \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0628\u0627\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0646\u0649
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\u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0646\u0648\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0629
Genomic Archytypes \u0644\u062a\u0633\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0637\u0627\u0644\u0628
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0641 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0635\u0631\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0627\u0636\u064a\u060c \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0647\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0644 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0628\u062a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0635\u064a\u0646\u064a\u064a\u0646\u060c
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0645\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0630\u0631\u060c \u0648\u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0631\u0628 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0643\u0631\u0648\u0627\u062a
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.



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.



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Y.



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.



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\u0623\u0633\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062c\u062f\u0627\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0645\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u062a\u0639\u062f\u0627\u062f \u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646
.



\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0645\u0629



\u062a\u062a\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0623\u0647\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0645\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u062a\u062f\u0634\u064a\u0646 \u0642\u0627\u0639\u062f\u0629
\u0628\u064a\u0627\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0639\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649. \u0641\u0642\u0627\u0639\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0627\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0628\u0639\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636
\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649 \u0628\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0646\u062c\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0627 \u0648\u0648\u064a\u0644\u0632 \u062a\u0636\u0645 2.3 \u0645\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u0639\u064a\u0646\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0631\u0627\u062f\u060c \u0648230.000 \u0639\u064a\u0646\u0629 \u0645\u0646
\u0622\u062b\u0627\u0631 \u0645\u0634\u0647\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0645\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062c\u0627\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0643\u0628\u0631 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0646\u062c\u0627\u062d\u0627\u064b \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645. \u0648\u062a\u0639\u062a\u0645\u062f
\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0647\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0628\u0635\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649 \u0639\u0644\u064a \u062a\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0644 \u0623\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0637 \u062a\u0648\u0627\u0631\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0643\u0631\u0631\u0629
\u0644\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649 \u0644\u0644\u0623\u0637\u0648\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641 \u0645\u0646 \u0641\u0631\u062f \u0644\u0622\u062e\u0631. \u0648\u062a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0645
\u062a\u0637\u0648\u064a\u0631 \u0637\u0631\u0642 \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u062a\u0639\u0642\u064a\u062f\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0646\u0649 \u062a\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0645 \u0623\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0637\u0627\u064b \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649 \u0645\u0646 \u062a\u0643\u0631\u0627\u0631\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649. \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0637 \u0642\u062f \u062a\u0631\u062a\u0628\u0637 \u0628\u062c\u0646\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u062f (\u0627\u0644\u0643\u0631\u0645\u0648\u0632\u0648\u0645
Y \u0641\u0649 \u062d\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a \u062a\u0647\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u063a\u062a\u0635\u0627\u0628) \u0623\u0648 \u0628\u0623\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0628\u0647\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0637\u0629\u060c \u0623\u0648 \u0628\u0625\u0644\u062d\u0627\u062d
\u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0628\u062f\u0646\u064a\u0629 (\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0645\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0638\u0627\u0647\u0631\u0649). \u0648\u0647\u0646\u0627 \u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646 \u0627\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u064a
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u062a\u0648\u0643\u0648\u0646\u062f\u0631\u064a\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u064a\u0648\u0631\u062b \u0645\u0646 \u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645 \u0641\u0649 \u0639\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0646\u062e\u0641\u0636\u0629 \u062c\u062f\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649. \u0648\u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643
\u062a\u0642\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649\u060c \u0646\u0627\u0644\u062a \u0627\u0647\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0645\u0627 \u0645\u062a\u0632\u0627\u064a\u062f\u0627\u060c \u062a\u0642\u0648\u0645 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u062f\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0643\u0644\u064a \u0644\u0623\u062d\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0646\u064a\u0648\u0643\u0644\u064a\u0648\u062a\u064a\u062f\u0627\u062a
Polymorphisms Single Nucleotide (SNP \u062a\u0646\u0637\u0642 \u201cSNIP\u201d)



\u0648\u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646 \u062d\u064a\u0646 \u064a\u062a\u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633 \u0648\u0627\u062d\u062f \u0641\u0649 \u0633\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649 \u0623\u0646 \u064a\u062a\u0645 \u062a\u0645\u062b\u064a\u0644\u0647
\u062e\u0631\u0627\u0626\u0637\u064a\u0627\u064b \u0648\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0631\u0646\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0628\u0627\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0631\u0627\u062f. \u0645\u0631\u0629 \u062b\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0642\u0629 \u062a\u0646\u0627\u0633\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a
\u0630\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u062e\u0641\u0636. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u062f\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0643\u0644\u064a \u0644\u0623\u062d\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0646\u064a\u0648\u0643\u0644\u064a\u0648\u062a\u064a\u062f\u0627\u062a \u062e\u0631\u0627\u0626\u0637\u064a\u0627\u064b
\u0628\u0627\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0627\u0645 \u0642\u0648\u0627\u0639\u062f \u0628\u064a\u0627\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0648\u0641\u0631\u0629 \u0644\u062f\u0649 \u0623\u062c\u0647\u0632\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0631\u0637\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0647\u0649 \u0646\u0641\u0633\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649
\u064a\u062c\u062f \u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0631\u062c\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0631\u0637\u0629 \u0623\u062f\u0644\u0629 \u062a\u0639\u0643\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u0642\u0629\u060c \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0646\u0633\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u064a\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u060c \u0648\u062a\u0648\u0644\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0631\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0637\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0631\u0645\u064a\u0646
(Carter 2007) \u0648\u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0628\u062f\u0648\u0631\u0647 \u064a\u0624\u062f\u0649 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0646\u0627\u0642\u0634\u0627\u062a \u062c\u062f\u0644\u064a\u0647 \u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0645\u060c \u0648\u0639\u0646 \u0625\u0645\u0643\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0645\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0628\u0640\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u062a\u0628\u0647 \u0628\u0647\u0645\u201d \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0633\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u062a\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0629
\u0644\u0644\u0634\u0631\u0637\u0629
.



\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0633\u0645\u064a\u0629



\u064a\u0639\u062f \u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0648\u062a\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0627\u064b \u0631\u0626\u064a\u0633\u0627\u064b \u0644\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0627\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631
\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062a\u064a\u062c\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0631\u0643\u0628\u0629 \u0644\u0646\u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u0646\u062d\u0646\u060c \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0634\u0647\u062f \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u062a\u0639\u0631\u064a\u0641\u0627\u064b \u0648\u0627\u0636\u062d\u0627\u064b \u0641\u0649 \u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0627\u0635\u0631. \u0625\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0623\u0643\u064a\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0646 \u0646\u0643\u0648\u0646 \u0646\u062d\u0646\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0631\u064a\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0627\u062a\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0631\u062a\u062f\u0627\u062f\u064a\u060c \u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0631 \u0625\u0644\u064a\u0647
\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u201c\u0645\u0638\u0647\u0631 \u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a \u0644\u0643\u064a\u0646\u0648\u0646\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0629
\u201d (Jenkins 2004). \u0641\u0642\u062f \u0644\u0642\u064a\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0631\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a \u0627\u0647\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0645\u0627 \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644

\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0631\u0648\u0642\u0631\u0627\u0637\u064a\u0627\u062a
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0645\u0645\u0646 \u0633\u0639\u0648\u0627 \u0644\u0625\u064a\u062c\u0627\u062f \u0646\u0638\u0627\u0645 \u0644\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0627\u0626\u0645\u0629 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0648\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0627\u062e\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629
.



\u0644\u0642\u062f \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0623\u0643\u064a\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629\u201d \u0643\u062b\u064a\u0631\u0627 \u0645\u0627 \u064a\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0643\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0647\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0645 \u0628\u0642\u0636\u0627\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0631\u0627\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u060c \u0648\u0645\u0646 \u0647\u0646\u0627 \u062a\u0623\u062a\u0649 \u0623\u0647\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0631\u0642
\u0627\u0644\u062f\u0642\u064a\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u0623\u0633\u0633\u062a \u0648\u0639\u0628\u0626\u062a \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629
.



\u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0641\u0649 \u0635\u0646\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062b \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0645\u0631\u0627\u062c\u0639\u0629 \u0648\u062a\u0642\u064a\u064a\u0645 \u0645\u0627 \u0647\u0648
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.



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\u0630\u0643\u0648\u0631\u0649 \u0644\u0623\u0628 \u0639\u0627\u0634 \u0641\u0649 \u0623\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0627 \u0645\u0646\u0630 60.000 \u0633\u0646\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0623\u0646 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0623\u064a\u0636\u0627\u064b \u0642\u062f \u0641\u0635\u0644 \u0623\u0646\u0648\u0627\u0639\u0627
\u062b\u0627\u0646\u0648\u064a\u0629 (\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a) \u0642\u0627\u0628\u0644\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u0644\u0627 \u062a\u0648\u062c\u062f \u062f\u0627\u062e\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062c\u0646\u0627\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062b\u0629
(Human Genome Project 2007).



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\u0628\u064a\u0646\u0645\u0627 \u062a\u0645 \u062a\u0635\u0645\u064a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0636\u0627\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u064a\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0646\u0638\u0627\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u062c\u0631\u0627\u0621\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0624\u0633\u0633\u064a\u0629
(St Louis 2005).



\u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627



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.



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\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0629 \u062a\u062c\u0645\u0639\u0647\u0627 \u0645\u0643\u0648\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0634\u062a\u0631\u0643\u0629\u060c \u062a\u0643\u0645\u0646 \u0641\u0649 \u0633\u0639\u064a\u0647\u0645 \u062c\u0645\u064a\u0639\u0627 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0642\u0648\u0641
\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0635\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646
(Fenton 2003) \u0648\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0645 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0635\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0644 \u0645\u0646\u0627\u0642\u0634\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u062f\u0627\u0621
\u0644\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631\u060c \u0648\u0644\u0643\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u0647\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0648\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0630\u0627 \u064a\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0637\u0644\u062d \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0642\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0627\u0647\u0646 \u0644\u0644\u0625\u0634\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0643\u0628\u0631
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0639\u062f\u062f\u0627\u064b \u0648\u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0636\u0637\u0647\u0627\u062f\u0627 \u0641\u064a \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0628\u0627\u061f



\u0645\u0646 \u0647\u0645 \u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627\u061f



\u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u062b\u0644\u0627\u062b\u0629 \u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644 \u0645\u062a\u0646\u0627\u0641\u0633\u0629 \u0644\u0641\u0647\u0645 \u0648\u0627\u0633\u062a\u064a\u0639\u0627\u0628 \u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627\u060c \u0639\u0627\u0644\u062c\u062a\u0647\u0627
\u0645\u0624\u062e\u0631\u0627 \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629
(Vemeersch 2006) \u0641\u0623\u0648\u0644\u0627\u064b \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u062a\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e\u0649\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0623\u0643\u064a\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0648\u062d\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0628 \u0644\u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0633 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0633\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0649
\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0646\u062f \u064a\u0634\u062a\u0631\u0643\u0648\u0646 \u0641\u0649 \u0644\u063a\u0629 \u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0648\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u064a\u062a\u0646\u0627\u062b\u0631\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0622\u0646 \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0641\u0649 \u0647\u0630\u0627
\u0627\u0644\u0635\u062f\u062f \u062b\u0645\u0629 \u201c\u062a\u0644\u0641\u064a\u0642 \u0645\u062a\u0639\u0645\u062f\u201d \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0627\u062d\u062b\u064a\u0646 \u0641\u0649 \u0634\u0626\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0632\u064a\u064a\u0646
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0643\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0645\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0627\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0639\u062a\u0631\u0636\u0648\u0627 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0644\u0648\u0628\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0637\u0629 \u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627
(Oakley 1983\u060cVermeersch:14)



\u062b\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0627\u064b: \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0645\u0646 \u062c\u0627\u062f\u0644 \u0628\u0623\u0646\u0647 \u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0631\u0641 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0646\u0645\u0637 \u062d\u064a\u0627\u062a\u0647\u0645
\u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u064a\u062a\u0633\u0645 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0644 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0641\u0631 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u062d\u0627\u0644\u060c \u0648\u0643\u0648\u0646\u0647\u0645 \u0645\u0647\u0645\u0634\u064a\u0646 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0642\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649
\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0634\u0648\u0646 \u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0648\u0623\u0646 \u0644\u0647\u0645 \u0639\u0627\u062f\u0627\u062a \u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0648\u0645\u0648\u0633\u064a\u0642\u0649 \u062a\u0642\u0644\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0629. \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0623\u0646 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0645\u0631\u062f\u0648\u062f \u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647 \u0628\u0623\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0631\u0643\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0647\u062c\u0631\u0629 \u062a\u0645\u064a\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u062c\u0645\u064a\u0639\u0627 \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0623\u0646 \u0645\u0639\u0638\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0628\u0648\u0633\u0637 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627 \u064a\u0639\u064a\u0634\u0648\u0646 \u0641\u0649
\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0642\u0631\u0629 \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0645\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0645\u0631\u062a\u062d\u0644\u0647
.



\u062b\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0627\u064b: \u064a\u0631\u0649 \u0622\u062e\u0631\u0648\u0646 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0645\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0628\u0637\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u062d\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0631\u0627\u062b\u064a\u0629
\u0648\u0623\u0646\u0647\u0645 \u0630\u0648\u0649 \u0642\u0631\u0627\u0628\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u062d\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0645\u0624\u062e\u0631\u0627\u064b \u0634\u0647\u062f\u062a \u0628\u0644\u062f\u0629 \u0646\u0648\u0631\u0648\u064a\u062a\u0634
Norwich \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0645\u0644\u0643\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u062d\u062f\u0629 \u062d\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u062b\u064a\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0644\u0629 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0636\u0648\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062e\u064a\u0631\u060c \u062d\u064a\u062b \u062c\u0631\u062a
\u0645\u062d\u0627\u0648\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0644\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0631\u0641 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0631\u0628\u0645\u0627 \u062a\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0645\u0635\u062f\u0631\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0641\u0649 \u0648\u0636\u0639 \u0623\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0637
\u062d\u0627\u0643\u0645\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0629
.



\u0627\u0644\u062e\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0621 \u064a\u062a\u0648\u0635\u0644\u0648\u0646
\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649 \u0646\u0627\u062f\u0631



\u0623\u062f\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0634\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062b \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631\u0649 \u0641\u0649 \u0647\u064a\u0643\u0644 \u0639\u0638\u0645\u064a \u0644\u0634\u062e\u0635 \u0623\u0646\u062c\u0644\u0648
\u0633\u0627\u0643\u0633\u0648\u0646\u0649 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u062f\u0641\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0621 \u0644\u0625\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0643\u064a\u0631 \u0641\u0649 \u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0637\u0646\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0627\u0626\u0644
\u0628\u0645\u062f\u064a\u0646\u0629 \u0646\u0648\u0631\u0648\u064a\u062a\u0634. \u0641\u0627\u0644\u062e\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0621 \u0645\u0646 \u0648\u062d\u062f\u0629 \u0646\u0648\u0631\u0641\u0648\u0644\u0643
Norfolk \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649
\u062a\u062a\u062e\u0630 \u0645\u0646 \u0642\u0644\u0639\u0629 \u0646\u0648\u0631\u0648\u062a\u0634 \u0645\u0642\u0631\u0627\u064b \u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0643\u062a\u0634\u0641\u0648\u0627 \u0634\u0643\u0644\u0627\u064b \u0646\u0627\u062f\u0631\u0627\u064b \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u064a
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u062a\u0648\u0643\u0648\u0646\u062f\u0631\u064a\u064a\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u062a\u0645 \u0627\u0631\u062c\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644 \u063a\u062c\u0631\u0649\u060c \u0648\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0641\u0649 \u0643\u0634\u0641 \u0644\u0647\u064a\u0643\u0644 \u0639\u0638\u0645\u0649 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0646\u0642\u064a\u0628 \u0641\u0649 \u0645\u0646\u0637\u0642\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0633\u0639\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0646\u0648\u0631\u0648\u064a\u062a\u0634 \u0623\u062b\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0648\u0633\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0631\u0643\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062c\u0627\u0631\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645
\u0644\u0644\u0642\u0644\u0639\u0629. \u0641\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u062a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u062b\u0648\u0631 \u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0628\u0647\u064a\u0643\u0644 \u0639\u0638\u0645\u0649 \u0644\u0631\u062c\u0644 \u064a\u0627\u0641\u0639 \u064a\u0639\u0648\u062f \u0644\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u062f\u0649 \u0639\u0634\u0631. \u0648\u0645\u0639 \u062a\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0632\u0645\u0646 \u0648\u0635\u0648\u0644 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631\u0649 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0637\u0642\u0629 \u0623\u0635\u0628\u062d\u062a 500 \u0633\u0646\u0647
\u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062b \u0641\u0649 \u062d\u0627\u062c\u0629 \u0644\u0625\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0643\u064a\u0631 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0644\u064a\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0627\u0626\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a\u0646
\u0639\u0627\u0634\u0648\u0627 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062f\u064a\u0646\u0629. \u0648\u062a\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0633\u062a\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0638\u0627\u0645 \u0623\u0645\u0631\u0627\u064b \u063a\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0649
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0642\u064a\u062f \u062a\u0634\u0645\u0644 \u0646\u0642\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649 \u0645\u0646 \u0644\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0646\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u062a\u062d\u062a\u0641\u0638 \u0628\u0647 \u0645\u064a\u0646\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0646\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0644\u0628\u0629.
\u0648\u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u062a\u0648\u0643\u0648\u0646\u062f\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0642\u062f \u0645\u0631\u062a \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0646\u062b\u0648\u0649 \u0648\u0623\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u062a\u0645 \u062a\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0647 \u064a\u0648\u062c\u062f \u0641\u0642\u0637 \u0641\u0649 \u0623\u062d\u0641\u0627\u062f \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631\u064a\u064a\u0646. \u0648\u0648\u0641\u0642\u0627\u064b \u0644\u062a\u0633\u062c\u064a\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0645\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0648\u0649\u060c
\u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0623\u0648\u0644 \u062c\u064a\u0646 \u063a\u062c\u0631\u0649 \u062a\u0645 \u062a\u0633\u062c\u064a\u0644\u0647 \u0642\u062f \u0648\u062c\u062f \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0646\u062c\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0627 \u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u062f\u0633 \u0639\u0634\u0631
. (Norwich City Council Sarah Morkey 12 May 2006).



\u0648\u0628\u062e\u0635\u0648\u0635 \u062a\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0639\u062f\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0627\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0628\u064a\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0648\u0623\u0631\u0642\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u062f\u0627\u062f \u0648\u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0627\u062a\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0631\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0631\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0646\u0627\u062d\u064a\u0647 \u062b\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0631\u063a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0629
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631\u064a\u060c \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0627\u062a\u0641\u0627\u0642 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0646\u0637\u0627\u0642 \u0648\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0645\u0646
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.



\u0648\u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0645\u064a\u0632\u0629 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0628\u0633\u0649 Gypsie \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0633\u064a\u062c\u0627\u0646\u0649 Tsigane \u0648\u0623\u0633\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0644\u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0627\u062a
\u0641\u0631\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0641\u0644\u0627\u062a\u0634
Vclah\u060c \u0648\u0633\u0646\u062a\u0648 Sinto\u060c \u0648\u0643\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0631\u0627\u062f\u0634 Kalderash\u060c \u0648\u0628\u064a\u0627\u0634 Beash (Vermeesh
2006).
\u0648\u0641\u0649 \u0633\u0644\u0648\u0641\u0627\u0643\u064a\u0627 \u0641\u0625\u0646
\u0628\u0639\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062f\u0627\u0631\u0633 \u062a\u0639\u0632\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0637\u0641\u0627\u0644\u060c \u0645\u0642\u0633\u0645\u0629 \u0625\u064a\u0627\u0647\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0649 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u201d(\u0623\u0649 \u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627) \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0636\u201d \u0645\u0646
\u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631
. (Guardian2007) \u0648\u064a\u0648\u0627\u062c\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0634\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u064a \u0644\u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0639\u0628\u0631
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.



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.



\u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646



\u0628\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0648\u0627\u0632\u0649 \u0645\u0639 \u0628\u0632\u0648\u063a \u0627\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631 \u0628\u0648\u0635\u0641\u0647\u0645 \u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0628\u0632\u0648\u063a
\u0645\u0641\u0647\u0648\u0645 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0628\u0648\u0635\u0641\u0647\u0645 \u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0641\u0626\u0629 \u0645\u0639\u062a\u0631\u0641 \u0628\u0647\u0627 \u0642\u0627\u0646\u0648\u0646\u064a\u0627\u064b \u0645\u0646
\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0645\u0646\u0638\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u062d\u062f\u0629
(Niezen 2003). \u0641\u0645\u0637\u0627\u0644\u0628 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628
\u0645\u0646 \u0623\u062c\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644\u064a \u0628\u0647\u0645 \u0643\u0636\u062d\u0627\u064a\u0627 \u0644\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0648\u0644\u0645\u0629 \u0642\u062f
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\u0639\u0627\u0645 2001
.



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\u0648\u062a\u0634\u0643\u0644\u062a \u0647\u0648\u064a\u062a\u0647\u0627\u060c \u0641\u0623\u0635\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646
Indigenism \u0647\u0649 \u0627\u0635\u0637\u0644\u0627\u062d \u0627\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0645\u0647
\u0646\u064a\u0627\u0632\u0646
Niezen (2003) \u0644\u0648\u0635\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0631\u0643\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0633\u0639\u062a \u0644\u062a\u0639\u0632\u064a\u0632 \u062d\u0642\u0648\u0642
\u201c\u0623\u0648\u0644 \u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628\u201d \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645. \u0625\u0630 \u0642\u062f\u0631 \u0623\u0646 \u0646\u062d\u0648 \u062b\u0644\u0627\u062b\u0629 \u0645\u0644\u0627\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0639\u062f\u0629 \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629
\u0639\u0627\u0634\u0648\u0627 \u0641\u0649 \u201c\u0623\u0645\u0627\u0643\u0646 \u0628\u0631\u064a\u0629\u201d \u0648\u063a\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0627\u064b \u0645\u0627 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u064a\u0634\u0627\u0631 \u0625\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0645 \u0633\u0627\u0628\u0642\u0627 \u0628\u0627\u0633\u0645 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0628\u062f\u0627\u0626\u064a\u0646. \u0648\u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0630\u0643\u0631
\u0633\u0627\u0628\u0642\u0627\u064f \u0648\u0623\u062e\u0630\u0627 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0631 \u0646\u0645\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u062c\u0631\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u064a\u0637\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0646\u0642\u0644\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0627\u0633\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0631\u0627\u062b\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u062a\u0631\u0643\u0629\u060c \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u062f\u0627\u0629 \u0628\u0648\u0636\u0639 \u0645\u0645\u064a\u0632 \u0644\u0640 \u201d \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0644\u0649 \u201d \u0641\u0649 \u0628\u0642\u0639\u0629 \u0645\u0643\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0639\u064a\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0642\u062f
\u0623\u0635\u0628\u062d \u0639\u0631\u0636\u0647 \u0644\u0644\u0634\u0643 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062c\u062f\u0627\u0644
.



\u0648\u062a\u062a\u0633\u0645 \u0641\u0643\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u0627 \u0647\u0648 \u0628\u062f\u0627\u0626\u0649 \u0623\u0648 \u0628\u0631\u0649 \u0628\u062a\u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631 \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0642\u0627\u062a \u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629
\u0648\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629. \u0648\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u063a\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0627\u060c \u0641\u0625\u0646\u0647 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0628\u0629 \u0644\u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u060c \u0641\u0625\u0646
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