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Free download \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e \u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645 \u0644\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 free photo or picture to be edited with GIMP online image editor

This is the free photo or picture example named \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e \u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645 \u0644\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 for OffiDocs app Gimp, which can be considered as an online image editor or an online photo studio.

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Download or edit the free picture \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e \u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645 \u0644\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 for GIMP online editor. It is an image that is valid for other graphic or photo editors in OffiDocs such as Inkscape online and OpenOffice Draw online or LibreOffice online by OffiDocs.

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\u062a\u0623\u0644\u064a\u0641 : \u0625\u064a\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u0648\u0648



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https://geo-house.info/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%86%D8%B5%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B9%D8%B5%D8%A8-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D9%82%D9%8A-210x300.jpg



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.



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.



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Rhetoric
of Descent \u201c.



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.



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.



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(\u0627\u0644\u062c\u0633\u0645\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629) \u0644\u0645 \u062a\u0643\u0646 \u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u0648 \u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0648\u062c\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062f\u060c \u0644\u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u062a\u0637\u0628\u0642 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u062f\u064a\u062f
\u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0644\u0645 \u062a\u0643\u0646 \u0645\u062d\u062f\u062f\u0629 \u0628\u0645\u0635\u0637\u0644\u062d\u0627\u062a \u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629
(Goldberg 1993).



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.



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\u0639\u0646\u0641 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0644\u064a\u0628\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u062c\u0645\u064a\u0639 \u0623\u0646\u062d\u0627\u0621 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0641\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0639\u0631\u0636\u0648\u0627 \u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a
\u062a\u0634\u0631\u064a\u062f \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0627\u0636\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u062c\u0644\u064a\u0632\u064a\u0629 (1288-9012) \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0627\u062a\u0636\u062d \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0628\u0635\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0641\u0649
\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0633\u0628\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0631\u062a\u063a\u0627\u0644\u060c \u0648\u0628\u0648\u0647\u064a\u0645\u064a\u0627(\u062a\u0634\u064a\u0643\u064a\u0627)\u060c \u0648\u0625\u064a\u0637\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0627\u060c \u0641\u0649 \u0623\u0648\u0627\u062e\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0635\u0648\u0631
\u0627\u0644\u0648\u0633\u0637\u064a
(Poliakov 1975). \u0648\u0628\u062d\u0644\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u062f\u0633 \u0639\u0634\u0631 (1500) \u0627\u062e\u062a\u0641\u0649
\u0627\u0644\u0648\u062c\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0627\u0633\u062e \u0644\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0648\u062f \u0645\u0646 \u0645\u0633\u0627\u062d\u0627\u062a \u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u063a\u0631\u0628 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627
(Edwards 1994). \u0625\u0630 \u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u062f\u0627\u0621
\u0627\u0644\u062f\u064a\u0646\u064a \u0644\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0645\u062f\u0649 \u0648\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0641 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0645\u064a\u064a\u0632 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0639\u062f\u0627\u0621 \u0639\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0646\u064a \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0642
\u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u0627\u062b\u0629 \u0648\u0628\u0632\u0648\u063a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0648\u0625\u0644\u0642\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0636\u0648\u0621 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629
(bauman 1989) (\u0631\u0627\u062c\u0639 \u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062c\u0632\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0628\u0645\u0648\u0636\u0648\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0644\u0633\u0637\u0646\u0629 palestinianisation\u060c \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0635\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0645\u0633\u060c
\u0648\u0645\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0627\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0627\u0635\u0631\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0635\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u062f\u0633
)



\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0631\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0633\u0637



\u0644\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0639\u062a\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0647\u062c\u064a\u0646 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0646\u0648\u0627\u0639
\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u0645\u0631\u0627 \u0645\u0642\u064a\u062a\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0631\u0623\u0648\u0627 \u0623\u0646 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0645\u0646 \u0634\u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0623\u0646 \u064a\u0624\u062f\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0649 \u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631 \u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644\u0642\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0648\u062d\u0634\u064a\u0646\u060c \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u0645\u0627 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0636\u062d\u0627 \u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0641\u0635\u0644\u064a \u0641\u0649 \u0644\u0639\u0646\u0629 \u062d\u0627\u0645
\u201cThe Curse of Ham\u201d\u060c (\u0641\u0649 \u0625\u0634\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0649 \u0642\u0635\u0629 \u062d\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0628\u0646 \u0646\u0648\u062d\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0630\u0643\u0631\u062a \u0641\u0649 \u0633\u0641\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0643\u0648\u064a\u0646\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0635\u062d\u0627\u062d
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0633\u0639\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0622\u064a\u0627\u062a 18-25. \u0632\u0639\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0647 \u0642\u062f \u0644\u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0627\u0631\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0628\u062f\u064a\u0629\u060c
\u0648\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0645 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0643\u0623\u062d\u062f \u0623\u0639\u0638\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0628\u0631\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0644\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u062f\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0622\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0646\u064a\u0646
(Goldenberg 2003). \u0648\u0645\u0646 \u0647\u0646\u0627 \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0646\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0642\u062f \u0631\u0628\u0637\u0648\u0627 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621 \u0648\u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631
\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0639\u0628\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u062b\u0627\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0644\u0639\u0646. \u0641\u0627\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0643\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0634\u064a\u0637\u0627\u0646 \u0642\u062f \u0648\u062c\u062f
\u0641\u0649 \u0643\u0644 \u0641\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062f\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0648\u062f\u0649\u060c \u0648\u0643\u0645\u0627 \u062c\u0627\u062f\u0644 \u062f\u0627\u0641\u064a\u062f \u062c\u0648\u0644\u062f\u0646\u0628\u0631\u062c \u0641\u0649 \u0645\u0648\u0636\u0648\u0639 \u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631 \u0648\u0641\u0642\u0627
\u0644\u0644\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u0629 \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0635\u0646\u064a\u0641 \u0645\u0648\u062c\u0648\u062f \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0648\u062f\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u064a\u062d\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0644\u0645 \u0641\u0649 \u0646\u0635\u0648\u0635 \u0643\u062a\u0628\u0647\u0645
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u062f\u0633\u0629 \u0628\u062f\u0621 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0628\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0644\u0627\u062f\u064a. \u0648\u064a\u0646\u0638\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0646\u0648\u062d \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u0647\u0645 \u064a\u0645\u062b\u0644\u0648\u0646 \u0623\u0644\u0648\u0627\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0644\u0627\u062b\u0629 \u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u060c \u0645\u0639 \u0625\u0634\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0644\u062a\u062f\u0646\u0649 \u0648\u0648\u0636\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0623\u0643\u062f \u0628\u0631\u0646\u0627\u0631\u062f
\u0644\u0648\u064a\u0633 \u0641\u0649 1971\u060c \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0648\u062c\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0627\u0626\u0645\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0645\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0648\u0646\u0649 \u0648\u0645\u0627 \u064a\u062a\u0639\u0644\u0642 \u0628\u0647\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0645\u064a\u064a\u0632 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0631\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0633\u0637 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0645\u0631\u062d\u0644\u0629 \u0645\u0627\u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u0627\u062b\u0629 \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u0645\u0627 \u0623\u0635\u0628\u062d \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0631\u0633\u0648\u062e\u0627 \u0641\u0649 \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0642
\u0627\u0644\u063a\u0632\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0649 \u0641\u0649 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0625\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0627 \u0648\u0622\u0633\u064a\u0627 \u0648\u0645\u0627 \u0627\u0631\u062a\u0628\u0637 \u0628\u0647 \u0645\u0646 \u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0628\u0627\u062f. \u0648\u0647\u0630\u0647
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0637\u0631\u0648\u062d\u0627\u062a \u062a\u062f\u0639\u0645\u0647\u0627 \u0622\u0631\u0627\u0621 \u0628\u0639\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0624\u0631\u062e\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0641\u0631\u0627\u0646\u0643 \u0633\u0646\u0648\u062f\u0648\u06461970 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0627\u0643\u062a\u0634\u0641 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0644\u064a\u0633
\u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0645\u0627 \u064a\u062f\u0644 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0636\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u062f\u0633\u060c \u0648\u0645\u0627 \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0647
\u0623\u0644\u064a\u0633\u062a\u064a\u0631 \u0628\u0648\u0646\u064a\u062a \u0639\u0627\u0645 2000 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0623\u0643\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0633\u064a\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0628\u064a\u0636 \u0641\u0649 \u062a\u0643\u0648\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639\u0627\u062a \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0627\u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u0627\u062b\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0623\u0643\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0649
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0642\u062f\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u062f\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0625\u064a\u062c\u0627\u0628\u064a\u0629
.



\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u064a\u062d\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629



\u0646\u062a\u064a\u062c\u0629 \u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0634\u0627\u0631
\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0645 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u063a\u0632\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0628\u064a \u0641\u0649 \u0634\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0627\u060c \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0645\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0627\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062e\u0648\u0641 \u0645\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0645 (\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0648\u0641\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0627) \u0642\u062f \u0623\u0635\u0628\u062d\u062a \u0630\u0627\u062a \u062f\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0645\u0633\u0627\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0645\u0635\u0637\u0644\u062d \u0627\u0644\u0645\u063a\u0627\u0631\u0628\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0631\u0628\u0631(\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0631
\u0623\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0633\u0643\u064a\u0648\u0646
Moors) \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0627\u0646\u0642\u0633\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0649 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0631\u0628\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0636\u060c
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0631\u0628\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f
(Jahoda, 1992, 17) \u0648\u0644\u0642\u062f \u062f\u0627\u0645 \u0648\u062c\u0648\u062f
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u063a\u0627\u0631\u0628\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0631\u0628\u0631 \u0645\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0648\u062f \u0641\u0649 \u0623\u0633\u0628\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0627 \u0644\u0623\u0644\u0641 \u0639\u0627\u0645\u060c \u0648\u0645\u0627 \u062a\u0644\u0649 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0645\u0646 \u062d\u0631\u0648\u0628 \u0648\u0637\u0631\u062f \u0644\u0643\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0645\u0627
\u0641\u0649 \u0644\u062d\u0638\u0629 \u062d\u0627\u0633\u0645\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0635\u0646\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0643\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0636\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0631\u0628\u064a\u0629: \u0648\u0647\u0630\u0627 \u064a\u0646\u0637\u0648\u0649 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0648\u0636\u0639
\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0648\u062f \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0646 \u062e\u0627\u0631\u062c \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u064a\u060c \u0648\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0645 \u062a\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0646\u0647\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062f\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0639\u062f\u062f\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u062f\u064a\u0627\u0646 \u0648\u0625\u0636\u0641\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0631\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0641 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0645\u064a\u064a\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a \u0639\u0646 \u0637\u0631\u064a\u0642 \u0625\u062c\u0631\u0627\u0621 \u062a\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0644 \u0644\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0631
\u0646\u0642\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0645 \u0644\u062a\u0645\u064a\u064a\u0632 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u0647\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0633\u0628\u0627\u0646\u0649 \u0648\u0642\u0627\u0648\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062d\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0631\u0628\u0631\u0649 \u0641\u0649
\u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0627\u0645\u0646\u060c \u0648\u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0623\u0648\u0644\u0626\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0622\u062e\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a\u0646 \u0644\u0645 \u064a\u0642\u0627\u0648\u0645\u0648\u0627
(Hannaford 1996). \u0648\u0641\u0649 \u0645\u0648\u0627\u062c\u0647\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0645
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\u0641\u064a \u0631\u0633\u0648\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0628\u0648\u0627\u0643\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0635\u0648\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0633\u0637\u0649 \u064a\u0638\u0647\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0648\u0647\u0645 \u064a\u0639\u0630\u0628\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u064a\u062d\u060c \u0641\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0636\u0648\u0639
\u0627\u0644\u0631\u0626\u064a\u0633\u064a \u0641\u0649 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u064a\u062d\u064a\u0629 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u0639\u0627\u0631\u0636\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0642\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0634\u0623\u0646\u0647\u0645 \u0648\u062a\u0635\u0648\u064a\u0631\u0647\u0645
\u0643\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0628\u0631\u0629 \u0634\u064a\u0627\u0637\u064a\u0646\u060c \u0627\u062d\u062a\u0644\u0648\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0627\u0636\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u062f\u0633\u0629 \u0628\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0642\u0629 \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0634\u0631\u0639\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0633\u0648\u0627 \u0639\u0646\u0641\u0627 \u0645\u0641\u0631\u0637\u0627
\u0648\u0623\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0642\u064a\u0627\u062a \u062d\u064a\u0627\u0629 \u062c\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0647\u0645\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u062a\u062d\u0636\u0631\u0629. \u0641\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0648\u0645\u0627 \u0635\u0627\u062d\u0628\u0647\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0646\u0642\u0627\u0634\u0627\u062a
\u0634\u0643\u0644\u062a \u0633\u062c\u0644\u0627\u064b \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0634\u0631\u0627\u0642 \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0628\u0645\u062b\u0627\u0628\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0648\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633 \u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629.
\u0648\u0643\u0645\u0627 \u064a\u0642\u0648\u0644 \u0625\u062f\u0648\u0627\u0631\u062f \u0633\u0639\u064a\u062f (1985: 3
):



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.



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\u0644\u0642\u062f \u0633\u0627\u0639\u062f \u062a\u062c\u0627\u0647\u0644 \u0623\u0647\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u0631\u0643\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0631\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0649
\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0636\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0645\u0627\u062d \u0628\u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0641\u0643\u0631\u0629 \u062a\u0641\u0648\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0646\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0628\u064a\u0636. \u0648\u0644\u0642\u062f \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0644\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0638\u064a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062b\u0631 \u0641\u0649 \u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0631\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0631\u0628\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0647\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0644 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0628\u0629 \u0644\u0627\u062f\u0639\u0627\u0621\u0627\u062a
\u0645\u0627\u0631\u062a\u0646 \u0628\u0631\u0646\u0627\u0644 1987 \u0641\u064a\u0645\u0627 \u064a\u062a\u0639\u0644\u0642 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0644\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0643\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u062b\u0631\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0627\u0639\u0644 \u0628\u064a\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0645\u062d\u0648\u0631 \u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627\u060c \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0649
\u0635\u0646\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0636\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0646\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645\u0629. \u0625\u0644\u0627 \u0623\u0646 \u0625\u0646\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0648\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u062b\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0639\u0634\u0631 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0642\u062f \u0634\u0627\u0631\u0643 \u0641\u064a \u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0645\u0648\u0630\u062c
\u0627\u0644\u0622\u0631\u0649\u201d \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0627\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0631 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0636\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0646\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u201c\u0630\u0627\u062a\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0634\u0623\u201d \u0648\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0633\u0628\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0647\u064a\u0631\u0627\u064a\u0643\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629
(Young 1994). \u0648\u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0647\u0649
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0623\u0637\u0644\u0642 \u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0627
Bernal 1987 \u0627\u0633\u0645 \u201c\u0627\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0636\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0646\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645\u0629\u201d
\u0648\u0643\u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0642\u0649 \u0644\u0644\u062d\u0636\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u062a \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062c\u0629 \u0643\u062b\u064a\u0631\u0627 \u0628\u0635\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0639\u0627\u0645\u0629 \u0628\u0641\u0636\u0644
\u0627\u0633\u0647\u0627\u0645\u0627\u062a
Piertese (1994: 146) \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u064a\u0642\u0648\u0644:



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\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0644\u0633\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0628\u0627\u062f\u0626 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0634\u0647\u0631\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641 \u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0631\u0641\u0629\u060c
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u0646\u064a\u0627\u062a\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0646\u0648\u0646 \u064a\u062c\u0639\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u0628\u062f\u0648 \u0623\u0642\u0631\u0628 \u0645\u0627 \u062a\u0643\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u062f\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0649 \u0633\u0648\u0627\u0621 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u062e\u0635\u064a\u0629\u060c
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u060c \u0648\u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0643\u0648\u064a\u0646.



\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0636\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0627\u062e\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0627 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u062f\u0627\u0621 \u0644\u0644\u063a\u062c\u0631



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\u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645\u0629 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u0627\u062f \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062f\u0646\u0649\u060c \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0645\u0648\u062c\u0648\u062f\u0627
\u0628\u0635\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0642\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0623\u0646 \u064a\u062b\u0628\u062a \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0631\u0628\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u0623\u0646\u0641\u0633\u0647\u0645 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062d\u062f\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0645\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0637\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0629
(dikotter,1992:17). \u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u064a\u062c\u062f\u0648\u0646 \u0641\u0649 \u0628\u0634\u0631\u0629 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0631\u0645\u0627\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0628\u064a\u0636 \u0644\u062f\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0628\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0642\u0635\u0648\u0631\u0627
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\u201d (hangzong)
\u0643\u062a\u0645\u064a\u064a\u0632 \u0644\u0647\u0645 \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0645\u062c
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Bernier \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0645\u064a\u0632 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0623\u0631\u0628\u0639\u0629
\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a \u062a\u0636\u0645 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0635\u0641\u0631\u201d. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0634\u0647\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0639\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a \u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u0627 \u0633\u0631\u064a\u0639\u0627\u064b \u0641\u0649 \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0637\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649
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\u062b\u0645 \u0627\u0646\u062a\u0634\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0639\u064a \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0628\u0627\u0642\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0644\u0627\u062f. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0634\u0647\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0637\u0627\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u0631\u0648\u0646\u0629
\u0641\u0631\u064a\u062f\u0629 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062b
(Dikotter 1992:195). \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0634\u0647\u062f\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0635\u064a\u0646 \u0641\u0649
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\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u0644\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0623\u062d\u062f \u0647\u0624\u0644\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0635\u0644\u0627\u062d\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0647\u0648 \u064a\u0627\u0646 \u0641\u0648\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0642\u062f\u0645 \u062e\u0637\u0627\u0628\u0627 \u062a\u0641\u0635\u064a\u0644\u064a\u0627\u064b \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062f\u0631\u062c
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\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0637\u0644\u062d \u201c\u0632\u0648\u0646\u062c
zhong \u201d (\u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062a\u0639\u0646\u064a \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u201d\u060c \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0644\u201d \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0630\u0648\u0631\u201d \u0623\u0648
\u201c\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0648\u0639
\u201d) (Show 1997: 36). \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0636\u0627\u0641\u0629 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646
\u062a\u0635\u0648\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0648\u062f \u0648\u0644\u063a\u0629 \u0645\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0627\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0642\u062f \u062e\u0635\u0635\u062a \u0648\u0634\u0631\u0639\u062a \u0644\u0644\u062e\u0637\u0627\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0635\u064a\u0646\u0649
(Xun 1997:56).



\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0627\u0628\u0627\u0646



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(Shinto) \u0641\u0649 \u062a\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0641\u060c
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\u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0628\u062f\u0648\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0630\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621
(Weiner,1997, Young
1997).
\u0644\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u062a
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\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0627\u0628\u0627\u0646\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0642\u062f \u062c\u0645\u0639\u0648\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0648\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u060c (\u0627\u0644\u062e\u0637\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0641\u0631) \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u0645\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629 (\u0639\u0628\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u062c\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0628\u064a\u0636
) (Young 1997 :161). \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0648\u0642\u062f \u062d\u062f\u062f\u062a \u0623\u062f\u0644\u0629
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\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0644\u0642\u0629. \u0648\u0645\u0646 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0623\u0635\u0628\u062d\u062a \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062a\u064a\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u062e\u0637\u0627\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u062c\u0647\u0632\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u062f\u0648\u0644 \u0634\u0631\u0642 \u0622\u0633\u064a\u0627 \u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0648\u0645\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0627\u0648\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0642\u0627\u0645\u062a \u0628\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u062d\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u0631\u0648\u062c \u0644\u0644\u062a\u062e\u0644\u0635 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0645\u064a\u064a\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a
(Dikotter 1997: 2). \u0641\u0644\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0623\u062e\u0631\u062a \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0627\u0628\u0627\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0648\u0642\u064a\u0639 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u062a\u0641\u0627\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u062d\u062f\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0641\u0635\u0644
\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a \u0648\u0644\u0645 \u062a\u0642\u0645 \u0628\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0633\u0648\u0649 \u0641\u0649 \u0639\u0627\u0645 1996. \u0648\u062a\u0628\u062f\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0627\u0628\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0642\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0625\u062b\u0646\u064a \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0643 \u0645\u0639 \u0631\u062f\u0648\u062f \u0623\u0641\u0639\u0627\u0644 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u0627\u062c\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0648\u063a\u064a\u0631\u0647\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a. \u0648\u0631\u0628\u0645\u0627 \u064a\u062b\u0628\u062a
\u0645\u0648\u0642\u0641 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0648\u0631\u0627\u0643\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0646
Burakumin \u0628\u0639\u0636\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062c\u062c.



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\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u0646\u062a\u062c \u062f\u0627\u0626\u0645\u0627 \u0641\u0649 \u0635\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062f\u0631\u062c\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629
(Memmi.1967). \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u062a\u0631\u0649 \u0628\u0639\u0636
\u0627\u0644\u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0627\u062a \u0623\u0646\u0647
:



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\u0641\u0649 \u0625\u0631\u062a\u0631\u064a\u0627. \u0641\u0641\u064a \u0623\u0631\u062c\u0627\u0621 \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629 \u0623\u0648\u062c\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0631\u0648\u0646 \u0644\u063a\u0629 \u0644\u0637\u0628\u0642\u0629 \u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0643\u0648\u0646 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0645\u0629 \u0628\u064a\u0646\u0645\u0627
\u064a\u0642\u0628\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0641\u0648\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0646\u064a\u0627
(spickard 2005:14).



\u0641\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0647\u0649 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u063a\u0632\u0648 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0643\u0645 \u0641\u0649 \u0623\u0631\u0627\u0636\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628 \u0648\u0645\u0648\u0627\u0631\u062f\u0647\u0627\u201d (2005Loomba) \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0645\u0644\u0645\u062d \u0648\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0634\u0627\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e\u064a\u0629
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\u0641\u0649 \u062d\u0648\u0643\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0647\u062c \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0648\u0636\u0639\u062a \u0623\u0633\u0633\u0647 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0633\u0628\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0631\u062a\u063a\u0627\u0644 \u0648\u0625\u0646\u062c\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0627 \u0641\u0649
\u0625\u0637\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0648\u0633\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u062a\u064a\u0646. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0623\u0634\u0627\u0631\u062a \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629
Howard Winant (2001)
\u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u0647
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.



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\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u0649\u060c \u0627\u0630 \u0642\u062a\u0644 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0645\u0627\u0628\u064a\u0646 15 \u0625\u0644\u0649 20 \u0645\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646
(Jones 2006: 23). \u0644\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0645\u062b\u0644\u062a \u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0644 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0641\u0649
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\u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0628\u0643\u0631\u0629 \u0648\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0624\u0633\u0633\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0639\u0631\u0636\u062a\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0639\u0644\u0649
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(Walvin 1992: 28).



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    .


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    .


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    (Jones 2006: 70:85).


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.



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:



  • \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u064a\u0637\u0627\u0646 (1492-1650) \u0648\u062a\u0636\u0645\u0646\u062a
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  • \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0636\u062c (1650-1770) \u0645\u0639 \u0646\u0645\u0648
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  • \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0642\u0627\u0644 (1770-1888) \u0648\u0647\u0649
    \u0641\u062a\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0648\u0631\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0645\u0631\u062f\u060c \u0648\u0625\u0644\u063a\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u062c\u0627\u0621 \u0645\u0624\u062e\u0631\u0627\u064b \u0627\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0632\u064a\u0644 \u0641\u0649 \u0639\u0627\u0645
    1888
    (Karras and McNeill 1992)


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.



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:



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    .


  • \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0628 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0647\u0628\u060c \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0647\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0644
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    .


  • \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0631\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649
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  • \u0644\u0645 \u062a\u0643\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0637\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0641\u0649 \u062d\u0627\u062c\u0629
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    \u0623\u0638\u0647\u0631 \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0649 \u0639\u0627\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0641
    .


\u0648\u0622\u062e\u0631 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0630\u062c \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u064a\u062a\u062c\u0633\u062f \u0641\u0649 \u062d\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u062a\u0633\u0645\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0627 (\u0623\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0627)\u060c
\u0641\u0647\u0646\u0627 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u062f\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0637\u0646\u064a\u0646 \u0637\u0627\u0642\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0641\u0631\u0637\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0644\u062f\u064a\u0647\u0645 \u062f\u064a\u0645\u0648\u0642\u0631\u0627\u0637\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0641\u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647\u060c \u062f\u0648\u0646
\u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0643\u0648\u0646 \u0644\u062f\u064a\u0647\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u063a\u0628\u0629 \u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0629\u060c \u062b\u0645 \u062a\u0644\u062a \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0628\u0627\u062f\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629, \u0648\u0641\u0649 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u064a\u0642\u0648\u0644\u201d\u0645\u0627\u0646
\u201d:



\u062d\u064a\u0646\u0645\u0627 \u0648\u0637\u0623\u062a \u0623\u0642\u062f\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u062c\u0632\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u062a\u0633\u0645\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0627 \u0639\u0627\u0645 1804 \u0643\u0627\u0646
\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0634 \u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0646\u062d\u0648 4.500 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0635\u062d\u0627\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646\u060c \u0648\u0641\u0649 \u063a\u0636\u0648\u0646 80 \u0639\u0627\u0645\u0627 \u062a\u0645\u062a \u0625\u0628\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646
\u062a\u062c\u0631\u064a \u0641\u0649 \u0639\u0631\u0648\u0642\u0647\u0645 \u062f\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0623\u0635\u062d\u0627\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646\u060c \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0642\u062a\u0644 \u0622\u062e\u0631 \u0631\u062c\u0644 \u0639\u0627\u0645 1869\u060c \u0648\u0644\u0642\u064a\u062a \u0622\u062e\u0631
\u0627\u0645\u0631\u0623\u0629 \u062d\u062a\u0641\u0647\u0627 \u0641\u0649 \u0639\u0627\u0645 1876\u060c \u0641\u0649 \u062d\u064a\u0646 \u0638\u0644 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0642\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0627\u0629 \u0628\u0639\u0636 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u062c\u0646\u064a\u0646(\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062e\u0644\u0637\u064a\u0646).
\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0625\u0637\u0644\u0627\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0631 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u201c\u062d\u0641\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0635\u064a\u062f\u201d \u0648\u062a\u0633\u0645\u064a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u062d\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0648\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0627\u0626\u0639\u0629
\u0647\u0646\u0627.. \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0641\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062e\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0635\u062d\u0627\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u0644\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0646\u0642\u0644\u0648\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0649 \u062c\u0632\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0635\u063a\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u064a\u0632\u0627\u062d\u0645\u0648\u0646
\u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0643\u0645\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0642\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0639\u0627\u0645
. (Mann 2005: 83)



\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0634\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u0649: \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u064a\u0632 \u0636\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f



\u0641\u0649 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u0642\u064a\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0628\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629
(\u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u064a\u0646\u0638\u0631 \u0625\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0639\u0644\u064a \u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u0624\u0633\u0633 \u0644\u0646\u0638\u0627\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u062a\u064a\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a) \u0645\u0642\u0627\u0648\u0645\u0629
\u0627\u062a\u062e\u0630\u062a \u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644\u0627 \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629. \u0641\u0639\u0646\u062f \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0647 \u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0648\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0637\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u0645\u062f\u062a\u0646\u0627 \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629
Winant 2001 \u0628\u0645\u0635\u062f\u0631 \u0642\u064a\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0648\u062c\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0641\u0627\u062d \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0648\u0645\u0629 \u0645\u062a\u0636\u0645\u0646\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062e\u0631\u064a\u0628\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0631\u0648\u0628\u060c
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0645\u0631\u062f\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0648\u0631\u0629\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0642\u0635\u0627\u0621\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0644\u062c\u0648\u0621 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0648\u0639\u0649
Maroonage\u060c \u0648\u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0635\u0637\u0644\u0627\u062d \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062e\u064a\u0631
\u0647\u0648 \u0645\u0644\u0645\u062d \u0634\u0627\u0626\u0639 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0645\u0646 \u0646\u0638\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0647\u0649 \u0628\u0645\u062b\u0627\u0628\u0629 \u062a\u0634\u0643\u064a\u0644 \u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u064a\u062f
\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0627\u0631\u0628\u064a\u0646. \u0641\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0643\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0631\u0627\u0632\u064a\u0644 \u0648\u0633\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0646\u0627\u0645 \u0648\u0643\u0648\u0644\u0648\u0645\u0628\u064a\u0627 \u062a\u0642\u062f\u0645 \u0646\u0645\u0627\u0630\u062c \u0644\u0628\u0639\u0636 \u0623\u0645\u0627\u0643\u0646 \u062c\u0631\u0628\u062a \u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627
\u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u062a\u062a\u0636\u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0638\u0627\u0647\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062b\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0648\u0645\u0629 \u062d\u0631\u0643\u0627\u062a \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0645\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0636\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629\u060c
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0631\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0637\u0646\u0649\u060c \u0648\u0645\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0627\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629. \u0644\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0623\u0633\u0633\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621 \u0639\u0644\u064a \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645
\u0648\u0641\u0642\u0627 \u0644\u062b\u0644\u0627\u062b\u0629 \u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0643\u064a\u0631 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0631\u062a\u062f\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629
Reflexivity \u0648\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u062d\u064a\u0646\u0645\u0627 \u064a\u062f\u0644\u0646\u0627
\u062a\u0642\u064a\u064a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0639\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0627\u062a\u0649 \u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0642 \u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0649 \u0628\u0639\u064a\u0646\u0647 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0634\u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0623\u0646 \u0646\u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0642\u0641
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u060c \u0648\u064a\u0634\u0645\u0644
:



  • \u0627\u0631\u062a\u062f\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u201c\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0636\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629\u201d \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u0639\u0646\u0649 \u0628\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629
    \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0629 \u0644\u0623\u0635\u062d\u0627\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f
    .


  • \u0627\u0631\u062a\u062f\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u201c\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0636\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629\u201d \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u0646\u0627\u062f\u0649 \u0628\u062d\u0642\u0648\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628
    \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621, \u0648\u062d\u064a\u0627\u062a\u0647\u0645 \u0648\u0625\u0639\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0647\u0645\u060c \u0648\u0645\u0648\u0631\u062b\u0648\u0647\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0649 \u0641\u0649 \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0637\u0646\u064a\u0629
    .


  • \u0627\u0631\u062a\u062f\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u201c\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0636\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629\u201d \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u062c\u0627\u0628\u0647 \u0639\u062f\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u062f\u0627\u0644\u0629
    \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0638\u0631\u0648\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0631\u0628\u064a\u0629
    (Hesse 1999).


\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0632\u062f\u0648\u062c \u0644\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629



\u0644\u0645 \u062a\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0643\u0645\u062c\u0631\u062f \u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0648\u0627\u0646\u062c\u0627\u0632 \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u064a\u0645\u0646\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0633\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0629
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u062d\u0633\u0628\u060c \u0648\u0625\u0646\u0645\u0627 \u0623\u064a\u0636\u0627 \u0627\u0646\u0639\u0643\u0633\u062a \u0648\u0627\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0645\u062a \u0644\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0628\u0626\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0648\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0637\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0629
.



\u0641\u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0623\u0645\u0627\u0643\u0646 \u0639\u062f\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0646\u062c\u062f \u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u064a\u0646\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0636\u0631\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629
\u0644\u0641\u0647\u0645 \u0622\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639\u060c \u0648\u0644\u0627 \u062a\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621 \u0642\u0636\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0634\u063a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0627\u0644
(Spickard 2005 : 21) \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0647\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0644 \u0641\u0649 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u064a\u0627\u0628\u0627\u0646\u060c \u062a\u0631\u0643\u0645\u0627\u0646\u0633\u062a\u0646\u0627\u0646\u060c \u0648\u0643\u0645\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0627. \u0625\u0644\u0627 \u0623\u0646\u0647
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.



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\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0642\u0648\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0643\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a \u0642\u062f \u0623\u0648\u062c\u062f \u062a\u062d\u062f\u064a\u0627\u062a \u062c\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629. \u0648\u064a\u0631\u0649
Seymour
Drescher (1990)
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\u0627\u0644\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0629\u060c \u0623\u0646 \u201c\u0639\u0645\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0625\u0644\u063a\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0645 \u062a\u0639\u062f\u0644 \u0643\u062b\u064a\u0631\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0645\u0633\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629
\u201d (Quoted in Smaje 2000: 160).



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\u0628\u0648\u0636\u0648\u062d \u0641\u0649 \u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628\u0627\u062a \u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062b\u0642\u0641\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0639\u0645\u0644\u0648\u0627 \u0641\u0649 \u0646\u0647\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0639\u0634\u0631 \u0648\u0645\u0646
\u0647\u0624\u0644\u0627\u0621 \u0625\u062f\u0648\u0627\u0631\u062f \u0628\u0644\u0627\u064a\u062f\u0646
Edward Blyden
\u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0630\u0647\u0628 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646 \u0643\u0644
\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0645\u062a\u0633\u0627\u0648\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0625\u0644\u0627 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u062f\u0627\u0641\u0639 \u0639\u0646 \u0646\u0642\u0627\u0621\u201d\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621 \u0643\u062f\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0639\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0636\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0647\u064a\u0645\u0646\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0633\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0629
(Law 1985, lynch
1971).
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\u0648\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0635\u0645\u0645\u062a \u062e\u0635\u064a\u0635\u0627\u064b \u0644\u062a\u0644\u0642\u0649 \u0627\u062d\u062a\u064a\u0627\u062c\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0627\u0631\u0642\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644 \u0645\u0639 \u0638\u0631\u0648\u0641\u0647\u0645
.



\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u062d\u062f\u062b \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0633\u0645\u064a \u0628\u0627\u0633\u0645
\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f: \u0625\u062f\u0648\u0627\u0631\u062f \u0628\u0644\u0627\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0646



Description: https://geo-house.info/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Blyden_E_W_3c35638r-220x300.jpg



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\u0648\u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u064a\u0642\u0648\u0644
:



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.



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(Lewis 2000: 550) \u062d\u064a\u062b \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629
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\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643\u0633
(zukerman 2004 :4 ) \u0648\u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0628\u0629 \u0644\u062f\u0649 \u0628\u0648\u064a\u0647
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:



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(du bois 1897:6).



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:



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Description: https://geo-house.info/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/800px-WEB_DuBois_1918-230x300.jpg



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\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639 \u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u064a \u0641\u0649 \u0645\u062c\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0642\u064a\u062f\u0629 \u0648\u0623\u0646\u062a\u062c \u0639\u0645\u0644\u0627 \u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0627 \u0639\u0646\u201d \u0643\u0646\u064a\u0633\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0646\u062c\u0649\u201d (1903).
\u0648\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0641\u062a\u062a\u062d \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0639\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062c\u0645\u064a\u0639\u064a \u0645\u062c\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u062d\u0648\u062b \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0641\u0649 \u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u0627. \u0623\u0645\u0627 \u0639\u0646 \u0625\u0633\u0647\u0627\u0645\u0647
\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0631\u064a \u0641\u0649 \u0645\u062c\u0627\u0644 \u0641\u0647\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0636\u0645\u0646 \u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0627\u062a \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0623\u062e\u0630 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0631 \u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631 \u0646\u0638\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0645\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0628\u0637\u0629\u060c \u0639\u0644\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0631\u063a\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u0641\u0634\u0644\u0647 \u0641\u0649
\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0642\u0631\u0627\u0631 \u0628\u0623\u0647\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0646\u0633. \u0648\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0643\u0633 \u0645\u0646 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643\u0633 \u0648\u0641\u064a\u0628\u0631 \u0648\u062f\u0648\u0631\u0643\u0627\u064a\u0645 \u0641\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0639\u062a\u0631\u0641 \u062f\u064a
\u0628\u0648\u064a\u0647 \u0628\u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0645\u064a\u064a\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a \u0623\u0645\u0631\u0627 \u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0627 \u0641\u0649 \u0641\u0647\u0645 \u0643\u064a\u0641 \u064a\u062a\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0633 \u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645. \u0647\u0630\u0627
\u0648\u0642\u062f \u0630\u0647\u0628\u062a \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629
Lemmert
(2000)
\u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646 \u062f\u064a \u0628\u0648\u064a\u0647 \u201c\u0648\u0627\u062d\u062f\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0648\u0627\u0626\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0641\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0631\u064a\u0631\u064a\u064a\u0646\u201d \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a\u0646 \u0631\u0628\u0637\u0648\u0627
\u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u0642\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0648\u0644\u0645\u0629
.



\u0627\u0644\u0632\u0646\u0648\u062c\u0629 \u0648\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621 \u062c\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629



\u064a\u0631\u062c\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0636\u0644 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0641\u0627\u062d \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0635\u064a\u0644\u201d \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0647\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0642\u0627\u0645 \u0628\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u0648\u0633\u064a\u0647
\u0644\u0648\u0641\u0631\u062a\u064a\u0647
Toussaint L\u2019overture \u0641\u0649 \u0647\u0627\u064a\u064a\u062a\u0649\u060c \u0648\u0623\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644
\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0628\u0644\u0627\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0646 \u0648\u062f\u064a \u0628\u0648\u064a\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062f\u0627\u0641\u0639\u062a \u0639\u0646 \u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u062a\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f, \u0648\u0645\u0627 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0628\u0647\u0627
\u0645\u0646 \u062f\u0648\u0631 \u0641\u0649 \u0638\u0647\u0648\u0631 \u0625\u0644\u0647\u0627\u0645 \u0645\u0641\u0647\u0648\u0645 \u062c\u062f\u064a\u062f \u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631 \u0641\u0649 \u0645\u0646\u0637\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0628\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u0644\u0627 \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u064a\u0632
\u0644\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0627\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621
\u201d Negritude. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0633\u0643 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0637\u0644\u062d \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0627\u0639\u0631 \u0645\u0627\u0631\u062a\u064a\u0643\u0627\u0646 Marttican \u0648\u0631\u062c\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644\u0629 \u0623\u064a\u0645 \u0633\u064a\u0632\u0627\u0631 Aime Cesaire \u0641\u0649 \u0628\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0633 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644
\u062b\u0644\u0627\u062b\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0641\u0649 \u0645\u0646\u0627\u0642\u0634\u0629 \u0645\u0639 \u0637\u0644\u0627\u0628 \u062f\u0631\u062c\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0645\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0645\u062b\u0627\u0644 \u0644\u064a\u0648\u0628\u0644\u062f \u0633\u064a\u0646\u062c\u0648\u0631
\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u062f\u0627\u0645\u0627\u0633 \u0648\u0648\u0636\u0639\u062a \u0641\u0649 \u0645\u062c\u0644\u0629
l\u2019etudiant noir (\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0627\u0644\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f). \u0648\u0642\u062f
\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0644\u0647\u0645\u0648\u0627 \u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631\u0647\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u062d\u0631\u0643\u0627\u062a \u0641\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0629\u0648\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0645\u0642\u062f\u0645\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u062d\u0631\u0643\u0629 \u201c\u0646\u0647\u0636\u0629 \u0647\u0627\u0631\u0644\u0645
Harlem Renaissance\u201d\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u062a\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u201c\u0627\u0632\u062f\u0647\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062f\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0646\u062c\u0649\u201d \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u0646 1919-1935
\u0648\u062a\u0631\u0643\u0632\u062a \u0641\u0649 \u0646\u064a\u0648\u064a\u0648\u0631\u0643. \u0647\u0646\u0627 \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0645\u0641\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u062b\u0644
Langston Hughes , Claude
McKay
\u064a\u0634\u064a\u062f\u0648\u0646 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0628\u0631\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u062a\u0631\u0649 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u0627\u062f \u0644\u064a\u0633 \u0645\u0635\u062f\u0631\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0648\u0635\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0631 \u0628\u0644 \u0645\u0635\u062f\u0631\u0627\u064b
\u0644\u0644\u0641\u062e\u0631. \u0648\u062a\u0641\u0633\u064a\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0633\u064a\u0632\u0627\u0631
Cesaire \u0644\u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0641\u0647\u0648\u0645 \u062a\u0636\u0639
\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u0627\u062f \u0641\u0649 \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0637\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0628\u064a\u0646\u0645\u0627 \u064a\u0642\u062f\u0645 \u0633\u064a\u0646\u062c\u0648\u0631
Senghor \u0635\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0628\u0633\u0627\u0637\u0629
\u0648\u0634\u0645\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f. \u0641\u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0628\u0629 \u0644\u0647 \u0641\u0627\u0644\u0632\u0646\u0648\u062c\u0629 \u0647\u064a \u201c\u0642\u064a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0636\u0627\u0631\u0629\u201d \u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0631\u064a\u0642\u064a
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f\u2026\u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0648\u0631 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0648\u0627\u0635\u0644\u2026. \u0648\u0647\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0646\u0627\u063a\u0645
(Quoted in Gbson
2003: 45).
\u0625\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u062c\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629
\u0644\u0644\u0643\u064a\u0646\u0648\u0646\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621 \u0642\u062f \u0628\u0632\u063a\u062a \u0647\u0646\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u062d \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621\u060c \u0648\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0645\u064a\u0632\u062a
\u0628\u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0630\u0627\u062a \u0646\u0638\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u0648\u0636\u0648\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621\u060c \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0648\u062d\u0627\u0629 \u062c\u0632\u0626\u064a\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062b\u0646\u0648\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u064a\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0648\u0639\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0622\u0631\u062b\u0631 \u062f\u0649 \u062c\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0646\u0648
Arther de Gobineau. \u0623\u0645\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0633\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649
\u0642\u062f\u0645\u0647 \u0633\u064a\u0646\u062c\u0648\u0631\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0623\u0635\u0628\u062d \u0641\u064a\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0631\u0626\u064a\u0633\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u0646\u063a\u0627\u0644\u060c \u0641\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0639\u0631\u0636 \u0644\u0642\u062f\u0631 \u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0642\u062f.
\u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u0644\u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u062f\u064a\u0646\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0643\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0647 \u0633\u064a\u0632\u0627\u0631 \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0646\u0648\u062c\u0629 \u0623\u0628\u0644\u063a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062b\u0631 \u0641\u0649 \u0646\u0645\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0639\u064a
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f. \u0641\u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0639 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0647\u0627\u062a\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0643\u0631\u062a\u064a\u0646 \u0645\u0646 \u0634\u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0623\u0646 \u064a\u0632\u0627\u0648\u062c \u0645\u0632\u0627\u064a\u0627 \u062a\u0639\u0628\u0626\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u062a\u0631\u0643\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0645\u0648\u0627\u062c\u0647\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0646\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0647\u064a\u0645\u0646\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0631\u0641\u0636 \u0633\u064a\u062c\u0646\u0648\u0631 \u0641\u0643\u0631\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u064a\u0639\u0627\u0628 \u0648\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u062f\u0627\u062f \u0645\u0635\u0637\u0644\u062d
\u201cnegre\u201d (\u0627\u0644\u0632\u0646\u062c\u0649) \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0643\u0627\u0646
\u064a\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0645 \u0643\u062a\u0623\u0643\u064a\u062f \u0625\u064a\u062c\u0627\u0628\u064a \u0644\u0644\u0647\u0648\u064a\u0629
.



\u0648\u0641\u0649 \u0645\u062d\u0627\u0648\u0644\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0631\u0643 \u0641\u064a\u0645\u0627 \u0648\u0631\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0642\u0637\u0627\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0628\u064a\u0636 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0631\u064a, \u0633\u0639\u0649 \u0631\u0627\u0626\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0643\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u060c \u0641\u0631\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0632 \u0641\u0627\u0646\u0648\u0646
Frantz Fanon \u0644\u062a\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645 \u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u062c\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629.
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Third Worldism \u0643\u0641\u0636\u0627\u0621 \u0644\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0627\u0631\u0636\u0629 (Reed 2006). \u0648\u0641\u064a\u0645\u0627 \u064a\u062e\u0635 \u0627\u0646\u062a\u0642\u0627\u062f \u0648\u0645\u0631\u0627\u062c\u0639\u0629 \u0645\u0648\u0642\u0641 \u0631\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0639\u0644 \u062a\u062c\u0627\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0646\u0648\u062c\u0647\u060c \u062f\u0631\u0633 \u0641\u0627\u0646\u0648\u0646
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\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0638\u0647\u0631 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0633\u0628\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062b\u0627\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0649 \u0639\u0645\u0644\u062a \u0639\u0644\u0649
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\u062a\u0636\u0627\u0631\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0644\u0627\u0621\u0627\u062a\u060c \u0641\u0647\u0630\u0627 \u064a\u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0639\u0646 \u0645\u0648\u0642\u0641 \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0643\u0648\u0646 \u0630\u0648 \u0628\u0634\u0631\u0629 \u0633\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0621 \u0648\u0642\u0646\u0627\u0639 \u0623\u0628\u064a\u0636
(Fanon 1967).



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.



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Paul Gilory \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0649 \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0647 \u0628\u0639\u0646\u0648\u0627\u0646\u201d \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0637\u0644\u0646\u0637\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f\u201d (1993) \u0648\u0641\u0649 \u063a\u064a\u0631\u0647 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628\u0627\u062a \u064a\u0624\u0643\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0648\u0627\u0641\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u062a\u0631\u0643 \u0645\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u064a\u0632
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.



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