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\u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0648\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0629

Free download \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0648\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0629 free photo or picture to be edited with GIMP online image editor

This is the free photo or picture example named \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0648\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0629 for OffiDocs app Gimp, which can be considered as an online image editor or an online photo studio.

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Download or edit the free picture \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0648\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0642\u064a\u0629 for GIMP online editor. It is an image that is valid for other graphic or photo editors in OffiDocs such as Inkscape online and OpenOffice Draw online or LibreOffice online by OffiDocs.

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https://geo-house.info/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/%D9%85%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%B1%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D9%83%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%BA%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%81%D9%8A-210x300.jpg

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Hugh
Robert Mill
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(3)\u201c. \u0648\u0645\u0639 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0647\u0630\u0627
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.



\u0641\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0645\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0633\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0635\u0631 (1798-1801)\u060c \u0648\u0646\u0638\u064a\u0631\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0632\u0627\u0626\u0631 (1839-1842) \u0645\u062b\u0644\u062a
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\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0635\u0631\u060c \u062e\u0631\u062c \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u0628\u0645\u0648\u0633\u0648\u0639\u0629 \u0645\u0643\u0648\u0646\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u062b\u0644\u0627\u062b\u0629 \u0648\u0639\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u062c\u0632\u0621\u0627 \u062d\u0645\u0644\u062a \u0627\u0633\u0645 \u201c\u0648\u0635\u0641 \u0645\u0635\u0631
Description de I\u2019Egypte\u201d \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0638\u0647\u0631\u062a \u0641\u064a
\u0627\u0644\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u0646 1809 \u0625\u0644\u0649 1828\u060c \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0631 \u0625\u062f\u0648\u0627\u0631\u062f \u0633\u0639\u064a\u062f \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0633\u0648\u0639\u0629 \u0646\u0642\u0637\u0629 \u062a\u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e
\u062a\u0645\u062b\u064a\u0644 \u0648\u062a\u0635\u0648\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0627 \u0647\u0648 \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0623\u0644\u0648\u0641. \u0648\u0644\u0645 \u064a\u0643\u0646 \u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628 \u201c\u0648\u0635\u0641 \u0645\u0635\u0631\u201d \u0641\u0631\u064a\u062f\u0627 \u0641\u0642\u0637 \u0641\u064a \u062d\u062c\u0645\u0647\u060c \u0628\u0644 \u0645\u062b\u0644
\u0639\u0645\u0644\u0627 \u0645\u062a\u0645\u062a\u0639\u0627 \u0628\u0648\u0639\u064a \u0630\u0627\u062a\u064a \u064a\u0647\u062f\u0641 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0633\u062a\u0646\u0637\u0627\u0642 \u063a\u0631\u0627\u0626\u0628\u064a \u0644\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0627\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0642\u0629 \u062a\u0633\u062a\u0623\u0646\u0633 \u0645\u0627
\u0647\u0648 \u0628\u0639\u064a\u062f \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u062f\u062f\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0631\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0641\u062a\u0646\u0627\u0646 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0641\u0633. \u0641\u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0625\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u062a\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0647
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0631\u064a \u201c\u0628\u0639\u064a\u062f\u0627\u201d \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0631\u0642\u060c \u0648\u0623\u062e\u0630\u0647 \u201c\u0646\u062d\u0648\u201d \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0631\u0628 \u0628\u0641\u0646\u0647\u060c \u0648\u0639\u0644\u0645\u0647\u060c \u0648\u0631\u0624\u064a\u062a\u0647
\u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0631\u0648\u0642\u0631\u0627\u0637\u064a\u0629 \u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646 \u062f\u0645\u062c \u0645\u0633\u062a\u0642\u0628\u0644 \u0645\u0635\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u0631\u0648\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0628\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0648\u0646\u064a\u0629. \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u062d\u0648
\u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0645\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0635\u0631\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0623\u062e\u0630\u062a \u0634\u0643\u0644 \u201c\u0628\u0639\u062b\u0629 \u062a\u0642\u0635\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0642\u0627\u0626\u0642
Fact-Finding Mission\u201d \u0642\u062f \u062a\u062d\u0648\u0644\u062a \u2013 \u0628\u0643\u0644\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0625\u062f\u0648\u0627\u0631\u062f \u0633\u0639\u064a\u062f \u2013 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u201c\u0625\u0633\u062a\u064a\u0644\u0627\u0621 \u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a \u0631\u0647\u064a\u0628 \u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644\u0629
\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062f\u0648\u0644\u0629 \u0623\u062e\u0631\u0649\u201d. \u0639\u0644\u0627\u0648\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0630\u0644\u0643\u060c \u0641\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062a\u064a\u062c\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0648\u0638\u0641\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0648\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u0647\u0630\u0647
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0637\u0642 \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u062a\u0647\u062f\u0641 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0643\u0634\u0641 \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0646\u0648\u0632 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0627\u0636\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u064a\u0642\u0629\u060c \u0648\u062a\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645\u0647\u0627
\u0641\u064a \u0625\u0637\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u062e \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u201d. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u062a\u0643\u0631\u0631 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631- \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0646\u062d\u0648 \u0645\u0627 \u0630\u0643\u0631 \u062f\u0646\u0628\u0627\u0631
Dunbar- \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0627\u0646\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0622\u062e\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0637\u0644\u0633\u064a \u0645\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0639\u062b\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0625\u0644\u0649
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0643\u0633\u064a\u0643 \u0641\u064a \u0645\u0646\u062a\u0635\u0641 \u0633\u062a\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0639\u0634\u0631
.



\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u062d\u0648 \u0638\u0644\u062a
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Anatoli Prevost-
Paradol.
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.



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Brian Hudson \u0639\u0627\u0645 1977\u060c \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0646\u0647
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H.M
Stanely
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.



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.



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\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u062e



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\u201d.



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\u201d Climate\u2019s
Moral Economy
.



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Character of Races.



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.



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Geographical Review\u201d \u0639\u0627\u0645 1919 \u0628\u0639\u0646\u0648\u0627\u0646
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.Description: https://geo-house.info/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/%D9%86%D8%B7%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%AA%D9%8A%D9%84%D9%88%D8%B1-300x184.jpg
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:



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.



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.



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Human Biology\u201d \u0645\u0639\u0628\u0631\u0627 \u0639\u0646 \u0631\u0624\u064a\u062a\u0647
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.



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.



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:



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.



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E. G.
Ravenstein
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.



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James
Johnston
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Silva
White
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.



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.



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:



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.



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Decourcy
Ward
\u0623\u0646
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\u0623\u0648 \u0630\u0647\u0646\u064a \u0623\u0648 \u0623\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0642\u064a
.



\u0648\u064a\u062c\u0628 \u0623\u0644\u0627 \u0646\u0623\u062e\u0630
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\u0627\u0644\u0623\u062f\u0628\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u0649. \u0641\u0641\u0649 1898 \u0642\u0627\u0645 \u0644\u0648\u064a\u062c\u0649 \u0648\u064a\u0633\u062a\u064a\u0646\u0631\u0627 \u0633\u0627\u0645\u0628\u0648\u0646
Luigi Westenra
Sambon (
\u0648\u0647\u0648
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A.J.Herbertson
\u0641\u064a 1904 \u0639\u0646 \u0631\u0623\u064a\u0647
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Knowledge gazetteer \u201d
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.



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Compulsory
subject \u201d
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Penck
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\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0628\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u062a\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0630\u0627 \u0644\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0634\u064a\u0644\u0631 \u0648\u062f\u064a\u0641\u0632 \u0641\u064a \u0645\u062f\u0631\u0633\u0629 \u0644\u0648\u0631\u0646\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u062c\u0627\u0645\u0639\u0629 \u0647\u0627\u0631\u0641\u0627\u0631\u062f\u060c \u0648\u0630\u0644\u0643
\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0648\u0638\u0644 \u0648\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0644\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646\u0647\u0645\u0627 \u0637\u064a\u0644\u0629 \u062d\u064a\u0627\u062a\u0647. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0643\u062a\u0628
\u0625\u0644\u0649 \u062f\u064a\u0641\u0632 \u0641\u064a \u0639\u0627\u0645 1912 \u064a\u0642\u0648\u0644 \u0644\u0647 \u201d \u064a\u0628\u062f\u0648 \u0623\u0646 \u0634\u064a\u0626\u0627 \u0645\u0627 \u0634\u0628\u0647 \u0645\u0642\u062f\u0633 \u0623\u062c\u062f\u0647 \u0641\u064a \u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u062a\u064a \u062a\u062c\u0627\u0647
\u0623\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644\u0643
.



\u0648\u0641\u064a \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0631\u062d\u0644\u0629 \u0643\u0627\u0646
\u0628\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u064a\u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u0642\u0633\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627 \u0628\u062c\u0627\u0645\u0639\u0629 \u064a\u064a\u0644
Yale \u0646\u062d\u0648 \u062b\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0633\u0646\u0648\u0627\u062a\u060c
\u0648\u0639\u0632\u0632\u062a \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0628\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u062a\u0648\u062c\u0647\u0627\u062a\u0647 \u0646\u062d\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0626\u0648\u064a\u0629
Environmentalist
\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u063a\u0631\u0627\u0631 \u0646\u0645\u0648\u0630\u062c
\u0634\u064a\u0644\u0631. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0641\u062a\u062a\u0646 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0647\u0627 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0628\u0631\u064a\u062c\u0647\u0627\u0645
Brigham
\u0648 \u0633\u0645\u0628\u0644 \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062b\u0631
\u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u064a\u060c \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0642\u0627\u0645 \u0628\u062a\u062f\u0631\u064a\u0633 \u0645\u0642\u0631\u0631 \u0639\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0636\u0648\u0639 \u0628\u0639\u064a\u0646\u0647
\u0648\u0634\u0627\u0631\u0643 \u0641\u064a \u062a\u062f\u0631\u064a\u0633 \u0645\u0642\u0631\u0631 \u0622\u062e\u0631 \u0645\u0639 \u0623\u0644\u0633\u0648\u0631\u062b \u0647\u0646\u062a\u0646\u062c\u062a\u0648\u0646 \u0639\u0646 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0636\u0648\u0627\u0628\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e\u201d \u0648\u0644\u0627
\u0639\u062c\u0628 \u0625\u0630\u0646 \u0623\u0646 \u0628\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0642\u062f \u0628\u0630\u0644 \u062c\u0647\u062f\u0627 \u0641\u064a \u0623\u0646 \u064a\u0646\u0642\u0644 \u0644\u0637\u0644\u0627\u0628\u0647 \u0639\u062f\u0648\u0649 \u062d\u0645\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0646\u062b\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629
anthropogeography \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062c\u0627\u0621\u062a \u0625\u0644\u0649
\u0627\u0644\u0648\u0644\u0627\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u062d\u062f\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0627 \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0623\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0631\u0627\u062a\u0632\u0644\u060c \u0643\u0631\u064a\u062a\u0634\u0648\u0641
Kirchoff \u060c \u0628\u064a\u062a\u0634\u064a\u0644 Peschel
\u0648\u0647\u064a\u062a\u0646\u0631 \u0648\u0637\u0644\u0628 \u0645\u0646
\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0630\u062a\u0647 \u0642\u0631\u0627\u0621\u0627\u062a \u0625\u0644\u0632\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0647\u0624\u0644\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0624\u0644\u0641\u064a\u0646
.



\u0648\u0641\u064a \u0646\u0647\u0627\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0633\u0627\u0631\u0647
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u0646\u064a \u2013 \u0648\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u062a\u0648\u0636\u064a\u062d \u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631\u0647 \u0639\u0646 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627\u201d \u2013 \u0641\u064a \u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0648\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062d\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0627\u0645
1934- \u0623\u0643\u062f \u0628\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0631\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0627\u0635\u0631\u0629 \u0642\u062f \u0637\u0631\u062d\u062a \u062c\u0627\u0646\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062a\u0645
\u0627\u0644\u0622\u0644\u0649
mechanistic \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0642\u062f\u0645\u062a\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062f\u0627\u0631\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645\u0629\u201d. \u0641\u062d\u0642\u0627\u0626\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0636 \u0644\u0627 \u201c\u062a\u062d\u062f\u062f \u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u062d\u062a\u0645\u064a \u0634\u0643\u0644 \u0648\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0647\u062c \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u0647\u060c \u0648\u0644\u0643\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u201c\u062a\u0641\u0631\u0636 \u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647
\u0634\u0631\u0648\u0637\u0647\u0627\u201d \u0648\u0631\u063a\u0645 \u0623\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0634\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0634\u0643\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0631\u0627\u0648\u063a\u0629 \u0641\u0625\u0646\u0647 \u0642\u062f \u0633\u062c\u0644 \u0639\u062f\u0645 \u0631\u0636\u0627\u0647 \u0639\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0630\u0647\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0648\u064a
Culturalism \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0629 \u0641\u0631\u0627\u0646\u0633
\u0628\u0648\u0627\u0632
Boas \u062d\u064a\u0646 \u062a\u062d\u0641\u0638 \u0628\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0639\u0644\u0649
\u0646\u0642\u062f \u0628\u0648\u0627\u0632 \u0645\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0631\u0627 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u201c\u0642\u0627\u0628\u0644 \u0644\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0642 \u0641\u0642\u0637 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0630\u0627\u0647\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0626\u0648\u064a\u0629\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u062d\u062a\u0645\u064a\u0629\u201d \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0642\u062f \u0631\u0641\u0636\u062a \u0645\u0628\u0643\u0631\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u062c\u0645\u064a\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0621 \u0628\u0627\u0633\u062a\u062b\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0646\u0641\u0631 \u0645\u0645\u0646 \u0623\u063a\u0648\u062a\u0647\u0645
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0637\u0644\u062d\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0631\u0627\u0648\u063a\u0629 \u0644\u0640 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631
Influence\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0643\u0645 Control\u201c.



\u0648\u0642\u062f \u0638\u0644 \u0628\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0641\u064a
\u062c\u0627\u0645\u0639\u0629 \u064a\u064a\u0644 \u0644\u0625\u062d\u062f\u0649 \u0639\u0634\u0631\u0629 \u0633\u0646\u0629 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646 \u0635\u0627\u0631 \u0645\u062f\u064a\u0631\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u064a\u0629 1915. \u0648\u0642\u062f
\u0628\u062f\u0627 \u0646\u062c\u0645\u0647 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0639\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u062d\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0641\u062a\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0636\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u064a \u0644\u0625\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0641\u064a\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0631\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0644\u0649 \u0648\u0625\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u062a\u0634\u0643\u064a\u0644 \u062e\u0631\u064a\u0637\u0629 \u0623\u0648\u0631\u0628\u0627. \u0648\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0631\u0626\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0647
\u0644\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0642\u062f\u0645 \u0628\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u0635\u0627\u062f\u0631 \u0643\u0627\u0631\u062a\u0648\u062c\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0647\u0645\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0631\u0626\u064a\u0633 \u0648\u0648\u062f\u0631\u0648
\u0648\u064a\u0644\u0633\u0646 \u0627\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0627\u0645\u0647\u0627 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0645\u0624\u062a\u0645\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0644\u062d \u0641\u064a \u0628\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0633 \u0639\u0627\u0645 1919. \u0625\u0636\u0627\u0641\u0629 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0633\u0639\u0649
\u0628\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628 \u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0646 \u0628\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0644\u0644\u0646\u0634\u0631 \u0641\u064a \u062f\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 (\u062f\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629
\u201c\u062c\u064a\u0648\u062c\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0643\u0627\u0644 \u0631\u064a\u0641\u064a\u0648\u201d) \u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0623\u0647\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0644\u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0631\u0636\u060c \u0648\u062f\u0641\u0639 \u0641\u064a \u0645\u0642\u0627\u0628\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0639\u062f\u0629 \u0645\u0626\u0627\u062a
\u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0644\u0627\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0644\u0643\u0627\u062a\u0628 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u062c\u0648\u0641\u0627\u0646 \u062a\u0633\u064a\u0641\u064a\u064a\u062a\u0634
Jovan Cvijic
\u0646\u0638\u064a\u0631
\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0644 \u0639\u0646 \u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0644\u0642\u0627\u0646\u060c \u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0644 \u064a\u0636\u0645 \u062e\u0631\u064a\u0637\u0629 \u0625\u062b\u0646\u0648\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629
.



\u0648\u0642\u062f \u0639\u0627\u062f\u062a \u0647\u0630\u0647
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.



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Kropotkin (1842-1921)
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:



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.



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Evolutionary
Naturalism .
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Biological
Functionalism
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Encyclopedia
Britannica
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.



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\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0644\u0627\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643 \u0648\u062a\u062c\u0627\u0647\u0644\u0647 \u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0639\u0627\u062f\u0644\u201d \u0648\u0645\u0646 \u062b\u0645 \u0641\u0642\u062f \u0646\u0634\u0631 \u0644\u0627\u062d\u0642\u0627 \u2013 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0635\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0644 \u0645\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0628\u0642 \u0644\u0646\u0634\u0648\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0631\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0644\u0649 \u2013 \u0633\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0641\u064a \u062f\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0639\u0634\u0631\u201d \u062d\u0645\u0644\u062a \u0639\u0646\u0627\u0648\u064a\u0646 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0634\u0627\u0643\u0644\u0629 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0628\u0627\u0634\u0631 \u0644\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0626\u0629 \u0639\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0628\u0627\u062a\u0627\u062a\u201d\u060c
\u201c\u0627\u0633\u062a\u062c\u0627\u0628\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0648\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0626\u0629\u201d\u060c \u0648\u201d\u0648\u0631\u0627\u062b\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0641\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0643\u062a\u0633\u0628\u0629
Inheritance of
Acquired Characterisitics \u201c(142).
\u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u0630\u0647\u0628 \u0643\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u062a\u0643\u064a\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u0648\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0648\u0636\u0648\u064a
Anarchistic Humanism
\u2013
\u0628\u062a\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0632\u0647 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0628\u0627\u062f\u0644
\u0648\u062a\u0641\u0643\u064a\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0631\u0643\u0632\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0643\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u0627\u062a\u064a \u0644\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0636\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u2013 \u0642\u062f \u0642\u0627\u0645 \u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062a\u0641\u0633\u064a\u0631
\u0643\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u062a\u0643\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0627\u0646\u064a \u0644\u0644\u0642\u062f\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0643\u062a\u0633\u0628\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0633\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u063a\u0645\u0648\u0633\u0627
\u0628\u0645\u0632\u064a\u062c \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0628\u0627\u062f\u0626 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629
.



\u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0627\u0628\u0637
\u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0631\u0646\u0629 \u0630\u0627\u062a \u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0634\u0627\u0645\u0644\u0629 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0644\u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u062f\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0631\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u062b\u064a\u0642
\u0628\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0645\u0648\u0639\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0643\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0628\u0642\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0638\u0647\u0648\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0627\u0631\u0648\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0641\u064a
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0633\u0627\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0644\u0646\u062f\u0646 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0633\u062a\u0642\u062f\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0641\u0627\u0647\u064a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0629 \u0642\u062f \u062c\u0627\u0621 \u0645\u0645\u0632\u0648\u062c\u0627 \u0628\u0645\u0628\u0627\u062f\u0626
\u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0647\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0647\u0646\u0627 \u0627\u0632\u062f\u0647\u0631\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0642\u062f\u0645\u062a \u0646\u0645\u0648\u0630\u062c\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0648\u0644 \u201c\u0645\u0646
\u0623\u0633\u0641\u0644\u201d. \u0648\u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0639\u0648\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0637\u0631\u0641\u0629 \u0644\u062d\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0646\u064a\u0633\u0629 \u0648\u0625\u062e\u0636\u0627\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0642\u0631\u0627\u0637\u064a\u0629\u060c \u062d\u0638\u064a\u062a \u0647\u0630\u0647
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0628\u0627\u062f\u0626 \u0628\u0625\u0639\u062c\u0627\u0628 \u0645\u0628\u0627\u0634\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u0642\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0628\u0639\u062b\u0629 \u0622\u0646\u0630\u0627\u0643. \u0648\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0646\u062d\u0648 \u0645\u0627 \u0630\u0647\u0628 \u062f\u064a\u0632\u0645\u0648\u0646\u062f
\u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0628\u0645\u062b\u0627\u0628\u0629 \u201c\u062a\u0648\u062c\u0647 \u0631\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0643\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0628\u062f\u0631\u062c\u0629 \u0623\u0643\u0628\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u064a \u0634\u0649\u0621 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u062f\u0627\u0631\u0648\u064a\u0646 \u0642\u062f \u062a\u0635\u0648\u0631\u0647\u201d.
\u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062d\u0631\u0636\u0648\u0646 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062a\u0628\u0646\u064a \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0642\u062f \u0627\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0645\u0648\u0627 \u0644\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0629 \u0637\u0648\u064a\u0644\u0629 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0628\u0627\u062f\u0626 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0639\u0644\u0642\u0629 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u062f\u0645\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062d\u062a\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0626\u064a \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u062c\u0644 \u0625\u0642\u0631\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0642\u0627\u0644
\u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639 \u062f\u064a\u0645\u0648\u0642\u0631\u0627\u0637\u064a \u0648\u062a\u0639\u0627\u0648\u0646\u064a
.



\u0648\u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u0648\u0627\u0636\u062d \u0648\u062c\u062f
\u0643\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u062a\u0643\u064a\u0646 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0639\u0628\u0629 \u0647\u064a \u0645\u0648\u0627\u062c\u0647\u0629 \u0623\u0648\u0644\u0626\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0635\u062d\u0627\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u062c\u0639\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0633\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0646 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0648\u0638\u064a\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0627\u0645\u0644 \u0644\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u062e\u062f\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0647\u062f\u0627\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629
(144). \u0648\u0641\u064a
\u0627\u0644\u0648\u0642\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0627\u0639\u062a\u0645\u062f \u0641\u064a\u0647 \u0647\u0624\u0644\u0627\u0621 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0633\u0647\u0627\u0628 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0625\u062e\u0636\u0627\u0639 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0647\u064a\u0645\u0646\u0629\u060c \u0633\u0639\u0649
\u0643\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u062a\u0643\u064a\u0646 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u062a\u0648\u0636\u064a\u062d \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a \u0644\u062a\u062d\u0642\u064a\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0631\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0633\u0646\u0643\u0648\u0646 \u0645\u062e\u0637\u0626\u064a\u0646 \u0625\u0630\u0627 \u0645\u0627
\u0627\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0636\u0646\u0627 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u060c \u0633\u0648\u0627\u0621 \u0641\u064a \u0644\u0648\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0627\u0631\u0648\u064a\u0646\u064a \u0623\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643\u064a \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633
\u0627\u0644\u0648\u062d\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0628\u0648\u0633\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0631\u062a\u0628\u0637\u0629 \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0632\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0643\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0642\u0648\u0645 \u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647.
\u0648\u0641\u064a \u062d\u0627\u0644\u0629 \u0625\u0644\u064a\u0632\u064a\u0647 \u0631\u064a\u0643\u0644\u064a
Elisee Reclus \u0631\u0641\u064a\u0642 \u0643\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u062a\u0643\u064a\u0646 \u0648\u0623\u062d\u062f
\u0645\u0624\u064a\u062f\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0648\u0636\u0648\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0641\u0625\u0646\u0647 \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0639\u0642\u0628\u0627\u062a \u062a\u062a\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0648\u0627\u0628\u062d \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0637\u0624\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0641\u0631\u0636\u062a\u0647\u0627
\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0644\u0633\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0648\u064a\u0629
Naturphilosophie
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0623\u062e\u0630\u062a \u0634\u0643\u0644\u0627
\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0627
Romanticism. \u0648\u0644\u0623\u0646 \u0631\u064a\u0643\u0644\u064a \u0642\u062f \u0648\u0642\u0639
\u062a\u062d\u062a \u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0643\u0627\u0631\u0644 \u0631\u064a\u062a\u0631\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0642\u062f \u0644\u0642\u064a \u0645\u0639\u0627\u0631\u0636\u0629 \u0634\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u062c\u0627\u0645\u0639\u0629 \u0628\u0631\u0644\u064a\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u0645\u0637\u0644\u0639
\u062e\u0645\u0633\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0639\u0634\u0631\u060c \u0631\u063a\u0645 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0642\u062f \u062a\u062e\u0644\u0649 \u0644\u0627\u062d\u0642\u0627 \u0639\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u062b\u0648\u0630\u0643\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u064a\u062d\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a
\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0645\u062f \u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0643\u062b\u064a\u0631\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0631\u064a\u062a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0645\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0629
holistic\u060c \u0628\u0644 \u0625\u0646 \u0631\u064a\u0643\u0644\u064a \u0642\u062f \u062d\u0648\u0644
\u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0634\u0649\u0621 \u0623\u0642\u0631\u0628 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0644\u0633\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u0648\u0641\u064a\u0629
near-mystic nature
philosophy.
\u0648\u0641\u064a
\u0623\u0639\u0642\u0627\u0628 \u0641\u062a\u0631\u0629 \u0643\u0648\u0645\u064a\u0648\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0633
Paris Commune \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u062e\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0635\u0631\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u0631\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0643\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u064f\u0639\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0648\u0636\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0647\u0627 \u0631\u064a\u0643\u0644\u064a \u0642\u062f \u0635\u0627\u0631\u062a \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0646\u0639\u0648\u0645\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0646\u0633\u062e\u0629
\u0643\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u062a\u0643\u064a\u0646. \u0648\u0628\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u064a\u0643\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0647\u0627 \u0643\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u062a\u0643\u064a\u0646 \u2013 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a
\u062a\u0630\u0643\u0631\u0646\u0627 \u0628\u0645\u0627 \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0647 \u062c\u064a\u0648
Guyot \u2013 \u0642\u062f \u0627\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0631\u062a \u0623\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0642\u062f\u0645\u0647\u0627 \u0631\u064a\u0643\u0644\u064a \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0645\u0642\u062f\u0645\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0636
L\u2019home et la Terre \u201d \u0648\u201d\u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629
\u0644\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645
Nouvelle Geographie
Universelle
(1876-1894)
\u062a\u0645\u062f\u0646\u0627 \u0628\u0623\u0641\u0636\u0644 \u062a\u0645\u062b\u064a\u0644
\u0644\u0644\u0623\u0639\u0645\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0641\u064a \u0639\u0635\u0631\u0646\u0627\u201d. \u0648\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0646\u062d\u0648 \u0645\u0627 \u0643\u062a\u0628 \u062f\u0646\u0628\u0631
Dunbar \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u062a\u0623\u0643\u064a\u062f \u0643\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u062a\u0643\u064a\u0646
\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0636\u0627\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0627\u0626\u0645\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0639\u0644\u0642\u0629 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631\u0627\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0637\u0631\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u062d\u062b \u0639\u0646 \u062d\u0644\u0648\u0644 \u0644\u0647\u0627\u060c \u0642\u062f \u062f\u0641\u0639
\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0631\u064a\u0643\u0644\u064a \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0632 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0648\u0632\u064a\u0639 \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0644 \u0644\u0644\u062b\u0631\u0648\u0629..\u0648\u0623\u0647\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0627\u0628\u062a\u062f\u0627\u0639
\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0642\u0629 \u062a\u0636\u0645\u0646 \u062a\u0648\u0632\u064a\u0639\u0627 \u0639\u0627\u062f\u0644\u0627 \u0644\u0645\u0648\u0627\u0631\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0648\u062b\u0631\u0648\u0627\u062a\u0647 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0634\u0639\u0648\u0628\u0647
.



\u0648\u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0634\u0627\u0628\u0647 \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0627
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0647\u062c \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0627\u0626\u0645 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0629 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0629 \u0639\u0628\u0631 \u0646\u0647\u062c \u063a\u064a\u0631 \u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u064a\u060c \u0648\u062a\u0648\u0627\u0632\u0646
\u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0642\u060c \u0648\u0646\u0632\u0639\u0629 \u062a\u0648\u0644\u064a\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0644\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0642\u062f \u0642\u062f\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0647\u062c \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062b\u0627\u0644\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0643\u0627\u0646
\u064a\u0628\u062d\u062b \u0639\u0646\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631\u064a\u0643\u064a \u062c\u0648\u0631\u062c \u0628\u064a\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0646\u0633 \u0645\u0627\u0631\u0634
George Perkins Marsh\u060c \u0628\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0642\u0629 \u0623\u062b\u0645\u0631\u062a \u0639\u0646
\u0625\u0646\u062a\u0627\u062c \u0645\u0624\u0644\u0641\u0647 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629
Man and Nature\u201d \u0641\u064a \u0639\u0627\u0645 1864 (148). \u0648\u0641\u064a
\u0648\u0627\u0642\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0645\u0631 \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0645\u0627\u0631\u0634 \u0642\u062f \u0627\u062d\u062a\u0641\u0649 \u0643\u062b\u064a\u0631\u0627 \u0628\u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628 \u0631\u064a\u0643\u0644\u064a \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0631\u0636\u201d \u0648\u0633\u0639\u0649 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0637\u0631\u062d
\u062a\u0631\u062c\u0645\u0629 \u0625\u0646\u062c\u0644\u064a\u0632\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0647\u060c \u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0631\u062f \u0631\u064a\u0643\u0644\u064a \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0628\u0627\u062f\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u0627\u0631\u0634 \u0623\u0646 \u0623\u0628\u062f\u0649 \u0627\u0633\u062a\u0639\u062f\u0627\u062f\u0647 \u0628\u062f\u0648\u0631\u0647 \u0644\u0623\u0646
\u064a\u062a\u0631\u062c\u0645 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628 \u0645\u0627\u0631\u0634 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629\u201d. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0627\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0641 \u0641\u064a
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062a\u0628\u0646\u0627\u0647\u0627 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0632\u0645 \u0628\u0647\u0627 \u0643\u0644\u0627\u0647\u0645\u0627\u060c \u062d\u064a\u062b \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u0627\u0631\u0634 \u064a\u0624\u0643\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062f\u0645\u064a\u0631\u064a
\u0644\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0626\u0629\u060c \u0628\u064a\u0646\u0645\u0627 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0631\u064a\u0643\u0644\u064a \u064a\u0641\u0636\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0642\u0627\u0628\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0632 \u0639\u0644\u0649\u0649 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0628\u0627\u0637
\u0627\u0644\u0635\u0648\u0641\u064a \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u064a\u062a\u062c\u0644\u0649 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062f\u0633\u0643\u064a\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0624\u0646\u0633\u0646
Humanized Landscape. \u0648\u0644\u0643\u0646 \u0645\u0639 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0643\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0645\u0627 \u2013 \u0645\u062b\u0644\u0645\u0627 \u0646\u062c\u062f \u0641\u064a \u062b\u0646\u0627\u0626\u064a\u0629 \u0634\u0648\u064a\u0648 J.F Schouw \u0648\u0646\u0627\u062a\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0627\u0644 \u0634\u064a\u0644\u0631 Shaler \u0641\u064a \u0633\u064a\u0627\u0642 \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641 \u2013 \u0643\u0627\u0646
\u064a\u0633\u0639\u0649 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0635\u0648\u0644 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0637\u0631\u0642 \u0644\u0635\u064a\u0627\u063a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0629 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0645\u062e\u062a\u0644\u0641\u0629
\u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u0637\u0641\u064a\u0641 \u0641\u064a \u062c\u0648\u0627\u0646\u0628\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0644\u0633\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0645\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0633\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u064a\u0643\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629
.



\u0648\u0625\u0644\u0649 \u062c\u0627\u0646\u0628 \u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0646\u0630\u0643\u0631
\u0623\u064a\u0636\u0627 \u0643\u0627\u0631\u0644 \u0648\u064a\u062a\u0641\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0644
Karl Wittfogel\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0627\u0642\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643\u0633\u064a
\u0644\u0644\u062c\u064a\u0648\u0628\u0648\u0644\u064a\u062a\u0643\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0627\u0633\u062a\u062f\u0639\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0623\u0643\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0635\u0627\u063a\u0647 \u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643\u0633 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u062d\u0648\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0627\u0631\u062c\u064a\u0629
external nature \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0622\u062f\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u0644 labour \u0633\u064a\u062a\u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646
\u062a\u0644\u0642\u0627\u0626\u064a\u0627. \u0648\u0643\u064a \u064a\u0635\u064a\u063a \u0648\u064a\u062a\u0641\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0644 \u0645\u0630\u0647\u0628\u0627 \u0645\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0627 \u0645\u062d\u0643\u0648\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0634\u0631\u0648\u0637 \u062c\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629\u060c \u0630\u0647\u0628 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0645\u0627\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0649
\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062b \u0641\u0643\u0631\u064a \u0645\u062a\u0646\u0648\u0639\u060c \u0644\u062f\u0649 \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0645\u0648\u0646\u062a\u0633\u0643\u064a\u0648 \u0648\u0647\u064a\u0631\u062f\u0631
Herder \u0648\u0631\u064a\u062a\u0631\u060c \u0648\u0648\u0635\u0644 \u0625\u0644\u0649
\u0646\u062a\u064a\u062c\u0629 \u0623\u0643\u062f \u0641\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u0646\u0627 \u0646\u0634\u0647\u062f \u0628\u0634\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u062a\u0632\u0627\u064a\u062f \u062a\u0628\u0644\u0648\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0648\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0633\u064a\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u062a\u0644\u0639\u0628\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0631\u0642
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u064a\u0635\u0627\u063a \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0639\u062a\u0645\u0627\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0639 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0638\u0631\u0648\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0648\u0635\u0641 \u0648\u064a\u062a\u0641\u0648\u062c\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0648\u0642\u0641
\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0643\u0631\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u064a\u062a\u062e\u0630\u0647 \u0628\u0623\u0646\u0647 \u201c\u0645\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0646\u0634\u0637\u0629
Active materialism\u201d\u060c \u0644\u0643\u0646\u0647 \u0645\u0648\u0642\u0641 \u064a\u0624\u0643\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0649
\u201c\u0646\u0634\u0627\u0637\u201d \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0642\u062f\u0631 \u0645\u0627 \u064a\u0624\u0643\u062f \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u201c\u0645\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629\u201d \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0634\u0627\u0637
.



\u0648\u0631\u063a\u0645 \u0623\u0646 \u0628\u0639\u0636\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0627
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