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\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0642\u0648\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645\u064a\u0629

Free download \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0642\u0648\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645\u064a\u0629 free photo or picture to be edited with GIMP online image editor

This is the free photo or picture example named \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0642\u0648\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645\u064a\u0629 for OffiDocs app Gimp, which can be considered as an online image editor or an online photo studio.

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Download or edit the free picture \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0642\u0648\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645\u064a\u0629 for GIMP online editor. It is an image that is valid for other graphic or photo editors in OffiDocs such as Inkscape online and OpenOffice Draw online or LibreOffice online by OffiDocs.

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.



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Länderkunde) \u0628\u0627\u0639\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0631\u0647\u0627 \u0623\u062d\u0633\u0646
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Erdkunde
).
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Geographische
Zeitschrift
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.



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\u201d.



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\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0629 \u0640 \u0645\u0639\u0631\u0648\u0636\u0627 \u0628\u0648\u0636\u0648\u062d \u0641\u064a \u0643\u062a\u0627\u0628\u0647 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u0647\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0645 \u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0631\u0646\u0633\u0627
Tableau de la Geographie de la France (1903)\u201d.



\u0648\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0627\u0642\u0639 \u0643\u0627\u0646
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Principes de Geographie Humaine (1921)\u201d \u0628\u0645\u062b\u0627\u0628\u0629 \u0628\u064a\u0627\u0646 \u0631\u0633\u0645\u064a.
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.



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Patrick Geddes
(1854-1932)
\u0648\u062f\u0627\u0626\u0631\u0629
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.



Description: https://geo-house.info/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Patrick_Geddes_1886.jpg



\u0628\u0627\u062a\u0631\u064a\u0643 \u062c\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0633 (1854-1932)



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.



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Les Ouvriers
Europeens\u201d
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.



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Geographie
Universelle\u201d
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.



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:



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\u201d.



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.



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.



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Challenger expedition
(1872-6)
\u0640
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Ben Nevis \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0641\u0648\u0631\u062a \u0648\u064a\u0644\u064a\u0627\u0645.
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.



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\u062a\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0645 \u062a\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0642 \u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639 \u0644\u0648 \u0628\u0644\u0627\u064a \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0629\u060c \u062a\u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0631\u0633\u0645 \u062d\u064a\u0648\u064a \u0628\u064a\u0626\u064a
\u0633\u0627\u062e\u0631 \u0644\u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0638\u0648\u0631. \u0625\u0630 \u0625\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0628\u0627\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0627\u0636\u062d \u0644\u0644\u0623\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0640 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0628\u0648\u064a\u0629\u201d\u060c \u201c\u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u062c\u0632\u0629\u201d
\u0648\u201d\u063a\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0642\u0631\u0629\u201d \u0640 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633 \u0645\u0634\u0631\u0648\u0639 \u0644\u0648 \u0628\u0644\u0627\u064a\u060c \u0644\u0627 \u064a\u062a\u0636\u062d \u0625\u0644\u0627 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u063a\u064a\u0627\u0628\u0647\u0627. \u0648\u064a\u062f\u0639\u064a
\u0647\u0631\u0628\u0631\u062a\u0633\u0648\u0646 \u0623\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0638\u0645 \u062a\u062d\u0648\u0644\u062a \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0646\u0638\u0627\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0626\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0644\u0627 \u062a\u0624\u062b\u0631 \u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0623\u064a\u0629
\u0638\u0631\u0648\u0641 \u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631\u0627 \u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631\u0627 \u2026 \u0633\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u062e\u201d. \u0625\u0630 \u0625\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0623\u062b\u0631\u0629 \u201c\u0628\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0630\u062c
\u0627\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0627\u0629\u201d \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0631\u0642\u064a\u0629 \u0640 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u062f\u0627\u0648\u0629\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0635\u064a\u062f\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0639\u064a\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0631\u0627\u0639\u0629\u060c \u0627\u0644\u062e \u0640 \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0645\u062c\u0631\u062f \u201c\u0645\u0631\u0622\u0629\u201d \u0644\u0644\u0641\u0626\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0628\u0631\u0649 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0640 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0646\u062f\u0631\u0627\u060c \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0627\u0628\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u062a\u062f\u0644\u0629\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0635\u062d\u0627\u0631\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0627\u0631\u0629\u060c \u0627\u0644\u063a\u0627\u0628\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0637\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0627\u0626\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0641\u0627\u0646\u0627\u060c \u0627\u0644\u062e. \u0648\u0644\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0644\u0627 \u064a\u0635\u0639\u0628 \u0625\u062f\u0631\u0627\u0643 \u0644\u0645\u0627\u0630\u0627 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u064a\u062c\u0628 \u0623\u0646 \u064a\u0642\u062a\u0646\u0635
\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0631\u0635\u0629 \u0644\u0627\u062d\u0642\u0627 \u0644\u0625\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u062c\u0630\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0628\u0627\u0647 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0648\u064a\u201d\u060c \u0639\u0646\u062f\u0645\u0627 \u0639\u0644\u0642 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0644
\u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0645\u0629
\u201d.



\u0648\u0647\u0646\u0627 \u0646\u062c\u062f \u062a\u0639\u0628\u064a\u0631\u0627 \u0639\u0646
\u0634\u0627\u0639\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0643\u0627\u0646\u060c \u0625\u0630\u0627 \u062c\u0627\u0632 \u0644\u0646\u0627 \u0623\u0646 \u0646\u0633\u062a\u062e\u062f\u0645 \u062a\u0633\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u062d\u062f\u064a\u062b\u0629 \u0639\u0641\u0627 \u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0645\u0646. \u0641\u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0641\u0639\u0644
\u062c\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0633 \u0646\u0641\u0633\u0647\u060c \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0641\u0635\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0631\u0643\u0628 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0645\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646\u0633\u064a\u060c \u0634\u0643\u0643 \u0647\u0631\u0628\u0631\u062a\u0633\u0648\u0646 \u0641\u064a \u0623\u0646 \u201c\u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u0647
\u0639\u0628\u0642\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0648\u0642\u0639\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0645\u0627 \u064a\u0642\u062f\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0631\u0627\u0621 \u0623\u0641\u0636\u0644 \u062a\u0639\u0628\u064a\u0631 \u0639\u0646\u0647\u0627.\u201d \u0648\u0647\u0643\u0630\u0627 \u0641\u0625\u0646\u0647 \u0643\u0645\u0627 \u0623\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0635\u0627\u062f\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0632\u0627\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629 \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0647\u0631\u0628\u0631\u062a\u0633\u0648\u0646 \u0640 \u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u062a\u0639\u0631\u0636\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0628\u0643\u0631
\u0644\u0644\u062f\u0627\u0631\u0648\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629 \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0641\u0627\u064a\u0633\u0645\u0627\u0646 \u0640 \u064a\u062c\u0628 \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0648\u0636\u0639 \u0641\u064a \u062a\u0631\u0627\u062b \u062c\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0633\u060c \u064a\u0646\u0637\u0628\u0642 \u0646\u0641\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0649\u0621
\u0623\u064a\u0636\u0627 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u0627\u0639\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0623\u0638\u0647\u0631\u0647\u0627 \u0647\u0631\u0628\u0631\u062a\u0633\u0648\u0646 \u0628\u0635\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u062a\u0632\u0627\u064a\u062f\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0646\u0648\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0644\u0649
\u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0634\u0631\u064a\u0646
.



\u0648\u0628\u0627\u0644\u0631\u063a\u0645 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0631\u0628\u0645\u0627
\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0645\u064a\u0644\u0627 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0625\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0635\u064a\u0627\u063a\u0629 \u0641\u0643\u0631 \u062c\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0633\u060c \u0625\u0644\u0627 \u0623\u0646\u0646\u064a \u0623\u0639\u062a\u0642\u062f \u0623\u0646 \u0647\u0646\u0627\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0645\u0627 \u064a\u062c\u0628
\u0642\u0648\u0644\u0647 \u0639\u0646 \u0641\u0643\u0631\u0629 \u0623\u0646 \u0647\u0631\u0628\u0631\u062a \u062c\u0648\u0646 \u0641\u0644\u064a\u0631
Herbert John Fleure
(1877-1969)
\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0648\u0639\u0628
\u0628\u0635\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0636\u062d\u0629 \u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0631\u0624\u064a\u0629 \u062c\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0633 \u0623\u0643\u062b\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u064a \u0634\u062e\u0635 \u0622\u062e\u0631 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u062d\u0645\u0633\u064a\u0646 \u0644\u0647.
\u0625\u0630 \u0625\u0646 \u062a\u062c\u0631\u0628\u0629 \u0641\u0644\u064a\u0631 \u0641\u064a \u0645\u0633\u0627\u0639\u062f\u0629 \u062c\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0633 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0625\u062f\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u062f\u0631\u0633\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0631\u0628\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062f\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u062f\u0628\u0644\u0646 \u0641\u064a
1914\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0642\u062f\u0627\u0645\u0647 \u0644\u062c\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0633 \u0643\u0645\u062d\u0627\u0636\u0631 \u0632\u0627\u0626\u0631 \u0641\u064a \u0645\u062f\u0627\u0631\u0633\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0635\u064a\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0645\u062f\u0631\u0633\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0641\u064a
\u0623\u0628\u0631\u064a\u0633\u062a\u0648\u064a\u062b
Aberystwyth\u060c \u0648\u0645\u0634\u0627\u0631\u0643\u062a\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0643\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u201c\u062c\u0645\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062d
\u0627\u0644\u0625\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645\u064a\u201d \u0648\u201d\u062c\u0645\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0648 \u0628\u0644\u0627\u064a\u201d\u060c \u0648\u0645\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0644\u0627\u062a\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0643\u062b\u0641\u0629 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0633\u0646\u0648\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0631\u0628\u060c \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u062a\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0645\u062c\u0631\u062f
\u0628\u0639\u0636 \u0645\u0633\u0627\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0634\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u0627\u0646\u062a\u0642\u0644\u062a \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0631\u0624\u064a\u0629 \u062c\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0633. \u0648\u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0623\u0639\u0644\u0646 \u0641\u0644\u064a\u0631 \u0641\u064a \u0645\u0646\u0627\u0633\u0628\u0627\u062a
\u0639\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0645\u062f\u064a\u0646 \u0644\u0644\u0627\u0633\u0643\u062a\u0644\u0646\u062f\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0623\u0644\u0642. \u0641\u0639\u0646\u062f\u0645\u0627 \u0643\u062a\u0628 \u0639\u0646 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631
Geography and Evolution\u201d \u0645\u062b\u0644\u0627\u060c \u062a\u062d\u062f\u062b \u0639\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0645\u0627\u0631\u0633\u062a\u0647 \u0639\u0644\u064a\u0647 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0644\u0647\u0645\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0633\u064a\u0631 \u0628\u0627\u062a\u0631\u064a\u0643 \u062c\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0633\u201d\u060c \u062b\u0645 \u0643\u062a\u0628 \u0644\u0627\u062d\u0642\u0627
\u0633\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0630\u0627\u062a\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0642\u062f\u064a\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629
Sociological Review. \u0648\u0644\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0628\u0627\u0628
\u0634\u0639\u0631 \u0643\u0627\u0645\u0628\u0644 \u0628\u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0645\u0636\u0637\u0631 \u0644\u062a\u0631\u0643\u064a\u0632 \u062a\u0642\u064a\u064a\u0645\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0645\u064a\u0642 \u0644\u0645\u0635\u0627\u062f\u0631 \u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u0644\u064a\u0631 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0627 \u0633\u0645\u0627\u0647 \u201c\u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631
\u062c\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0633
\u201d.



\u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0641\u0644\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u062b\u0644 \u062c\u064a\u062f\u064a\u0633
\u064a\u062f\u0631\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0648\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u0627\u060c\u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u064a\u0648\u0627\u0646\u060c \u0648\u062d\u062a\u0649 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0627\u0645\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a
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Influences of
Geographical Environment\u201d
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Annales de
Geographie\u201d.
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Scottish Geographical
Magazine
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.



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.



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Geography\u201d
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\u201d.



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.



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\u201d.



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The Mind of Primitive
Man\u201d
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.



\u0644\u0642\u062f \u0643\u062a\u0628
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Franz Boas
(1858-1942)
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\u0643\u064a\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u0623\u0648\u0627\u062e\u0631 \u0633\u0628\u0639\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0639\u0634\u0631 \u0628\u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627. \u0641\u0628\u0639\u062f \u062d\u0635\u0648\u0644\u0647
\u0639\u0644\u0649 \u062f\u0631\u062c\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0643\u062a\u0648\u0631\u0627\u0647 \u0639\u0646 \u0639\u0645\u0644\u0647 \u0641\u064a \u0644\u0648\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0627\u0647 \u0641\u064a 1881 \u0628\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0629 \u0642\u0635\u064a\u0631\u0629\u060c \u0642\u0631\u0631 \u0628\u0648\u0627\u0633 \u0623\u0646 \u064a\u0631\u0643\u0632
\u0628\u0634\u062f\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627\u060c \u0648\u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0647\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0645\u0647 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0647\u062c\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0633\u0643\u064a\u0645\u0648 \u0643\u0648\u0633\u064a\u0644\u0629 \u0644\u062a\u062d\u062f\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0627\u062a \u0628\u064a\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0626\u0629. \u0648\u0647\u0643\u0630\u0627 \u0628\u062f\u0623\u062a \u0631\u062d\u0644\u0629 \u0628\u0648\u0627\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u062b\u0646\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627 \u0639\u0628\u0631
\u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627
.



\u0648\u0639\u0646\u062f\u0645\u0627 \u0642\u0627\u0645 \u0628\u0648\u0627\u0633
\u0628\u0628\u0639\u062b\u062a\u0647 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0628\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0646\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062f
Baffinland \u0641\u064a 1883\u060c \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u062a\u0645\u0643\u0646\u0627
\u0628\u0642\u0648\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0643\u0627\u0631\u0644 \u0631\u064a\u062a\u0631\u060c \u062e\u0627\u0635\u0629 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u062a\u0639\u062f\u064a\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u062a\u0639\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0645
\u062a\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0630\u0647 \u062a\u064a\u0648\u0628\u0627\u0644\u062f \u0641\u064a\u0634\u0631
Theobald Fischer. \u062d\u064a\u062b \u0623\u0635\u0628\u062d \u064a\u062f\u0631\u0643 \u0631\u0648\u062d
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u062b\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u0645\u0627\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0641\u064a\u0634\u0631. \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0646\u0641\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0642\u062a\u060c \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0627\u062a\u0647 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u0629 \u062a\u062f\u0641\u0639\u0647
\u0641\u064a \u0627\u062a\u062c\u0627\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062d\u0627\u062f\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0642\u062f \u062a\u062d\u0642\u0642 \u062f\u0645\u062c \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0627\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0646\u0648\u0639\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0644\u0645\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0628\u062d\u062b\u0647 \u201c\u0628\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0646 \u0644\u0627\u0646\u062f
Baffin-Land\u201d \u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0646\u0634\u0631 \u0628\u0639\u062f \u0639\u0648\u062f\u062a\u0647
\u0628\u0639\u0627\u0645. \u0648\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0644\u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0644\u062f \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u0641\u0639\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0641\u0643\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0647\u064a\u0645\u0646\u0629 \u0644\u0645\u0627 \u0633\u0645\u0627\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0646\u062b\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0646\u0632\u0639\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u062a\u0645\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0644\u0643\u0646\u0647 \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0637\u0648\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0646\u0648\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u064a\u062a\u0633\u0627\u0621\u0644 \u0628\u0635\u0648\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u062a\u0632\u0627\u064a\u062f\u0629 \u0639\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0638\u0648\u0631. \u0648\u0645\u0624\u062e\u0631\u0627 \u0623\u0639\u0631\u0628 \u0639\u0646 \u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0624\u062b\u0631\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0626\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062a\u062a\u0628\u0639\u0647\u0627 \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0648\u0627\u0636\u062d\u0629 \u062c\u062f\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0623\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0631\u0627\u0633\u0629 \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0636\u062d\u0644\u0629 \u062c\u062f\u0627 \u0641\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0627\u060c \u0628\u062d\u064a\u062b \u0644\u0627
\u062a\u0633\u062a\u0637\u064a\u0639 \u0623\u0646 \u062a\u0644\u0642\u064a \u0623\u064a \u0636\u0648\u0621 \u062d\u0642\u064a\u0642\u064a \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062a\u0643\u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0648\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0634\u0631\u064a. \u0648\u0647\u0643\u0630\u0627 \u0641\u0625\u0646\u0647
\u0639\u0646\u062f\u0645\u0627 \u0627\u0646\u0637\u0644\u0642 \u0641\u064a \u0631\u062d\u0644\u062a\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u062f\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0641\u064a 1886 \u0640 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0643\u0648\u0644\u0648\u0645\u0628\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0631\u064a\u0637\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u0647\u0630\u0647
\u0627\u0644\u0645\u0631\u0629\u060c \u062d\u064a\u062b \u0648\u0627\u062c\u0647 \u0634\u0639\u0628 \u0643\u0648\u0627\u0643\u064a\u0648\u062a\u0644
Kwakiutl\u0641\u064a \u062c\u0632\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0641\u0627\u0646\u0643\u0648\u0641\u0631 \u0640
\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u064a\u062a\u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0643\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0646\u062b\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u0645\u0627\u0637 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0643\u064a\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e\u064a
.



\u0648\u0643\u0627\u0646 \u062c\u0632\u0621 \u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631 \u0645\u0646
\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062c\u0639 \u0628\u0648\u0627\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0646\u062b\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a \u064a\u0631\u062c\u0639 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0648\u0627\u062c\u0647\u062a\u0647 \u0641\u0644\u0633\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0641\u064a\u0644\u0647\u0644\u0645
\u062f\u064a\u0644\u062b\u064a
Wilhelm Dilthey. \u0641\u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u062b\u0645\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0646\u064a\u0627\u062a
\u0627\u0644\u0642\u0631\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0633\u0639 \u0639\u0634\u0631\u060c \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u062f\u064a\u0644\u062b\u064a \u064a\u0633\u0639\u0649 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u062a\u062e\u0644\u064a\u0635 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e \u0645\u0646 \u0639\u0628\u0648\u062f\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0627\u0636\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u0628\u0642\u0629
\u0644\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0648\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0636\u0639\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0645\u0646 \u062e\u0644\u0627\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0645\u064a\u064a\u0632 \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0648\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062a\u062a\u0646\u0627\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0644\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a
\u0648\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0648\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062a\u062a\u0646\u0627\u0648\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629\u060c \u0623\u0635\u0631 \u062f\u064a\u0644\u062b\u064a \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0628\u064a\u0646\u0645\u0627 \u062a\u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0648\u0645
\u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0623\u062c\u0644 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0641\u0633\u064a\u0631\u201d\u060c \u0643\u0627\u0646\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0648\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0629 \u062a\u0647\u062f\u0641 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0647\u0645\u201d. \u0625\u0630 \u0625\u0646
\u0627\u0644\u0641\u062a\u0631\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u0627\u0644\u064a\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0627 \u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646 \u0627\u062e\u062a\u0632\u0627\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0628\u0639\u0636 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0639\u0627\u062f\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0643\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0643\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062a\u0634\u0628\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0648\u0627\u0646\u064a\u0646. \u062d\u064a\u062b \u0641\u0634\u0644\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0645\u064a\u0645\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0644\u064a\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0628\u0633\u0627\u0637\u0629 \u0641\u064a \u0645\u0631\u0627\u0639\u0627\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0635\u0648\u0635\u064a\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u062e\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629. \u0648\u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0641\u0647\u0648\u0645 \u062a\u0645\u0627\u0645\u0627 \u0623\u0646 \u0628\u0648\u0627\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0633\u0644\u062d \u0628\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0646\u0627\u0639\u0627\u062a \u064a\u062c\u0628 \u0623\u0646
\u064a\u062a\u0633\u0627\u0621\u0644 \u062d\u0648\u0644 \u0641\u0643\u0631\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0642\u062f\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0637\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062d\u0627\u062f\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0642\u0627\u0626\u0645\u0629 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0642\u0627\u0646\u0648\u0646 \u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u064a \u0644\u0627 \u064a\u062a\u063a\u064a\u0631.
\u0648\u0642\u062f \u0643\u062a\u0628 \u0647\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0633 \u0623\u0646 \u201c\u0637\u0642\u0648\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0623\u0645\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0634\u0627\u0631\u064a \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062a\u0637\u0648\u0631\u064a \u0642\u062f \u0623\u0632\u0639\u062c\u062a\u0647 \u0644\u062f\u0631\u062c\u0629 \u0623\u0646\u0647 \u0644\u0645 \u064a\u0639\u062f
\u064a\u0633\u062a\u0637\u064a\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0648\u0631 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0631\u062a\u064a\u0627\u062d \u0641\u064a \u0648\u062c\u0648\u062f \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0639\u0645\u064a\u0645\u201d. \u0648\u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643\u060c \u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0644\u0633\u0641\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0643\u0627\u0646\u0637\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u062f\u064a\u062f\u0629
\u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u062a\u0639\u0631\u0636 \u0644\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u062d\u062a \u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631 \u0628\u064a\u0646\u0648 \u0625\u064a\u0631\u062f\u0645\u0627\u0646
Benno Erdmann (\u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0644\u0647 \u062a\u0623\u062b\u064a\u0631
\u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0634\u0644\u0648\u062a\u0631
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Spate \u0645\u062a\u0623\u0644\u0645\u0627 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0625\u0634\u0627\u0631\u0629 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646 \u0647\u0646\u062a\u0646\u062c\u062a\u0648\u0646 \u201c\u0623\u0639\u0637\u0649 \u0648\u0632\u0646\u0627 \u0643\u0628\u064a\u0631\u0627 \u0644\u0644\u0648\u0631\u0627\u062b\u0629 \u2026
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\u201d.(133) \u0623\u0645\u0627 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0646\u0633\u0628\u0629 \u0625\u0644\u0649
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\u0648\u0627\u0644\u062b\u0627\u0642\u0628\u0629 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0641\u0637\u0631\u0629\u201d\u060c \u0648\u0625\u0634\u0627\u0631\u062a\u0647\u0627 \u0625\u0644\u0649 \u201c\u0627\u0646\u062a\u0634\u0627\u0631 \u062a\u0644\u0643 \u0627\u0644\u0631\u0648\u062d \u0627\u0644\u062f\u064a\u0645\u0642\u0631\u0627\u0637\u064a\u0629\u201d\u060c \u0648\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0642\u0634\u062a\u0647\u0627
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.



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\u0639\u0645\u0644 \u0645\u0631\u0636\u064a\u201d \u0644\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627. \u0648\u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643 \u0641\u0625\u0646\u0647 \u0646\u0638\u0631\u0627 \u0644\u0623\u0646 \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0648\u0644\u0627\u062a \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0634\u0647\u062f \u0647\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062a\u064a \u201c\u0645\u064a\u0632\u062a
\u0648\u0638\u064a\u0641\u064a\u0627\u201d \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0627\u0637\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0639\u0646 \u0628\u0639\u0636\u0647\u0627\u060c \u0641\u0642\u062f \u0648\u062c\u062f \u0623\u0646 \u201c\u0645\u0635\u0637\u0644\u062d \u0643\u0648\u0631\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627\u060c \u0623\u064a \u0639\u0644\u0645
\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0642\u0627\u0644\u064a\u0645\u201d \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0631\u0634\u062a\u0647\u0648\u0641\u062a\u0646
Richthoften \u0645\u062a\u062c\u0627\u0646\u0633 \u0641\u0643\u0631\u064a\u0627. \u0648\u0643\u0630\u0644\u0643
\u0641\u0625\u0646 \u0628\u062d\u062b\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0647\u064a\u0631 \u0641\u064a \u201c\u0645\u0648\u0631\u0641\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0644\u0627\u0646\u062f\u0633\u0643\u064a\u0628
The Morphology of
Landscape\u201d
\u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a
\u0646\u0634\u0631 \u0641\u064a 1925 \u0642\u062f \u0623\u0628\u0631\u0632 \u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0629 \u0628\u0627\u0633\u0627\u0631\u062c
Passarge \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0623\u0646\u0647\u0627 \u062a\u0642\u062f\u0645 \u0628\u064a\u0627\u0646\u0627
\u0645\u062a\u0633\u0642\u0627 \u0644\u0623\u0647\u062f\u0627\u0641 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627\u060c \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0630\u064a \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0645\u062a\u0648\u0627\u0641\u0642\u0627 \u062a\u0645\u0627\u0645\u0627 \u0645\u0639 \u0623\u0646\u062b\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627 \u0643\u0644\u0627\u0631\u0643 \u0648\u064a\u0633\u0644\u0631
Clark Wissler \u0640 \u0648\u0647\u0648 \u0623\u062d\u062f \u062a\u0644\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0630 \u0628\u0648\u0627\u0633 \u0623\u064a\u0636\u0627. \u0648\u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0642\u064a\u0642\u0629\u060c \u0641\u0642\u062f \u0643\u0627\u0646 \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0647\u0630\u0647 \u0627\u0644\u0646\u0642\u0637\u0629
\u064a\u0639\u062a\u0642\u062f \u0623\u0646 \u201c\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0644\u062a\u062d\u0627\u0645 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062f\u0631\u064a\u062c\u064a \u0628\u064a\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0646\u062b\u0631\u0648\u0628\u0648\u0644\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062c\u062a\u0645\u0627\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062c\u063a\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0627 \u064a\u0645\u0643\u0646 \u0623\u0646
\u064a\u0645\u062b\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0631\u062d\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0648\u0644\u0649 \u0645\u0646 \u0633\u0644\u0633\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0646\u062f\u0645\u0627\u062c\u0627\u062a \u0641\u064a \u0639\u0644\u0645 \u0623\u0643\u0628\u0631 \u0644\u0644\u0625\u0646\u0633\u0627\u0646
\u201d.



\u0648\u0628\u064a\u0646\u0645\u0627 \u0627\u0646\u062f\u0645\u062c\u062a
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